Civil Code for Small Claims

1801. This chapter may be cited as the "Unruh Act."

1801.1. Any waiver by the buyer of the provisions of this chapter shall be deemed contrary to public policy and shall be unenforceable and void.

1801.4. The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to any contract or series of contracts providing for: (a) the construction, sale, or construction and sale of an entire residence, including a mobilehome, or all or part of a structure designed for commercial or industrial occupancy, with or without a parcel of real property or an interest therein, (b) for the sale of a lot or parcel of real property, including any site preparation incidental to such sale, (c) the sale of any aircraft required to be registered under the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, or (d) the sale of any vessel as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 9840 of the Vehicle Code if the cash price of such vessel, including accessories and equipment sold in conjunction therewith, exceeds twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000).

1801.6. (a) The Legislature finds that the decisional law of this state regarding the characterization of credit transactions as either loans or credit sales has been made unclear by the holding in King v. Central Bank, 18 Cal. 3d 840. It is the purpose of subdivision (b) to clarify such law by establishing standards for determining whether a transaction is subject to the Unruh Act. However, subdivision (b) is not intended to abrogate the judicial principle that the substance of a transaction rather than its form is determinative of its characterization as a loan or credit sale as exemplified by such decisions as Verbeck v. Clymer, 202 Cal. 557, Milana v. Credit Discount Co., 27 Cal. 2d 335, and Boerner v. Colwell Co., 21 Cal. 3d 37. Subdivision (b) also is not intended to abrogate the decision in Morgan v. Reasor Corp., 69 Cal. 2d 881, to the extent such decision has not been modified by Chapter 554 of the Statutes of 1969 or other legislative amendments to the Unruh Act.

(b) The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to any transaction in the form of a loan made by a supervised financial organization to a buyer of goods or services where all or a portion of the loan proceeds are used to purchase such goods or services, whether or not the seller of such goods or services arranges the loan or participates in the preparation of the loan documents, unless the supervised financial organization and the seller:

(1) Are related by common ownership and control and the relationship was a material factor in the loan transaction; or

(2) Share in the profits and losses of either or both the sale and the loan.

(c) For purposes of this section:

(1) The term "supervised financial organization" means a person organized, chartered, or holding a license or authorization certificate to make loans pursuant to the laws of this state or the United States who is subject to supervision by an official or agency of this state or the United States.

(2) Receipt of a loan commission, brokerage or referral fee by a seller from a supervised financial organization shall not constitute a sharing of profits of the supervised financial organization, provided that such payment (i) is reasonable under the circumstances existing at the time the loan is consummated, and (ii) is not refundable or is wholly or partly refundable only if the loan is voluntarily paid in full prior to its scheduled maturity. For purposes of this paragraph, a loan commission, brokerage or referral fee not exceeding the greater of 1 percent of the amount financed (as that term is defined by Regulation Z with respect to loans), or twenty dollars ($20), is reasonable under the circumstances existing at the time the loan is consummated.

(3) Payment of money by a seller to a supervised financial organization pursuant to an actual or alleged contractual or statutory obligation to indemnify a supervised financial organization for losses incurred as a result of the assertion by a buyer of claims or defenses with respect to goods or services purchased with loan proceeds shall not constitute participation in or sharing of loan losses by the seller

1801.7. The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to any premium finance agreement entered into by an industrial loan company pursuant to Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 18560) of Division 7 of the Financial Code.

1802.1. "Goods" means tangible chattels bought for use primarily for personal, family or household purposes, including certificates or coupons exchangeable for such goods, and including goods which, at the time of the sale or subsequently are to be so affixed to real property as to become a part of such real property whether or not severable therefrom, but does not include any vehicle required to be registered under the Vehicle Code, nor any goods sold or leased with such a vehicle if sold under a contract governed by Section 2982 or leased under a contract governed by Section 2985.7. "Goods" also includes a trailer which is sold in conjunction with a vessel, as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 9840 of the Vehicle Code, unless the sales transaction is exempted under Section 1801.4. As used in this section, "trailer" means a vehicle designed solely for carrying vessels.

1802.2. "Services" means work, labor and services, for other than a commercial or business use, including services furnished in connection with the sale or repair of goods as defined in Section 1802.1 or furnished in connection with the repair of motor vehicles (except for service contracts as defined by subdivision (p) of Section 2981 which are sold in conjunction with the sale or lease of a vehicle required to be registered under the Vehicle Code) or in connection with the improvement of real property or the providing of insurance, but does not include the services of physicians or dentists, nor services for which the tariffs, rates, charges, costs or expenses, including in each instance the deferred payment price, are required by law to be filed with and approved by the federal government or any official, department, division, commission or agency of the United States.

1802.3. "Retail seller" or "seller" means a person engaged in the business of selling goods or furnishing services to retail buyers.

1802.4. "Retail buyer" or "buyer" means a person who buys goods or obtains services from a retail seller in a retail installment sale and not principally for the purpose of resale.

1802.5. "Retail installment sale" or "sale" means the sale of goods or the furnishing of services by a retail seller to a retail buyer for a deferred payment price payable in installments.

1802.6. "Retail installment contract" or "contract" means any contract for a retail installment sale between a buyer and seller, entered into or performed in this state, which provides for (a) repayment in installments, whether or not such contract contains a title retention provision, and in which the buyer agrees to pay a finance charge, or in which the buyer does not agree to pay a finance charge but the goods or services are available at a lesser price if paid for by either cash or credit card, or in which the buyer would have received any additional goods or services or any higher quality goods or services at no added cost over the total amount payable in installments if the sale had been for cash, or (b) which provides for payment in more than four installments. When taken or given in connection with a retail installment sale, the term includes but is not limited to a security agreement and a contract for the bailment or leasing of goods by which the bailee or lessee contracts to pay as compensation for their use a sum substantially equivalent to or in excess of their value and by which it is agreed that the bailee or lessee will become, or for no other or for a nominal consideration has the option of becoming, the owner of the goods upon full compliance with the terms of the contract.

1802.7. "Retail installment account" or "installment account" or "revolving account" means an account established by an agreement entered into in this state, pursuant to which the buyer promises to pay, in installments, to a retail seller, his outstanding balance incurred in retail installment sales, whether or not a security interest in the goods sold is retained by the seller, and which provides for a finance charge which is expressed as a percent of the periodic balances to accrue thereafter providing such charge is not capitalized or stated as a dollar amount in such agreement.

1803.2. Except as provided in Section 1808.3, every retail installment contract shall be contained in a single document that shall contain:

(a) The entire agreement of the parties with respect to the cost and terms of payment for the goods and services, including any promissory notes or any other evidences of indebtedness between the parties relating to the transaction.

(b) (1) At the top of the contract the words "Security Agreement" shall appear in at least 12-point bold type where a security interest in the goods is retained or a security interest on other goods or realty is obtained by the seller as security for the goods or services purchased.

(2) At the top of the contract the words "Retail Installment Contract" shall appear in at least 12-point bold type where a security interest is not retained or obtained by the seller as security for the goods or services purchased.

(3) Any contract for goods or services that provides for a security interest in real property shall also provide the following notice, written in the same language, e.g., Spanish, as used in the contract: "WARNING TO BUYER: IF YOU SIGN THIS CONTRACT, YOU WILL BE PUTTING UP YOUR HOME AS SECURITY. THIS MEANS THAT YOUR HOME COULD BE SOLD WITHOUT YOUR PERMISSION AND WITHOUT ANY COURT ACTION IF YOU MISS ANY PAYMENT AS REQUIRED BY THIS CONTRACT." This notice shall be printed in at least 14-point boldface type, shall be set apart from the rest of the contract by a border, and shall appear directly above the space reserved for the signature of the buyer. A security interest created in any contract described in this paragraph that does not provide the notice as required by this paragraph shall be void and unenforceable.

As used in this subdivision, the term "security interest" refers to a contractual interest in property and not to a mechanic's lien or other interest in property arising by operation of law.

(c) Where the contract includes a finance charge that is determined on the precomputed basis and provides that the unearned portion of the finance charge to be refunded upon full prepayment of the contract is to be determined by a method other than actuarial, a notice in at least 10-point bold type if the contract is printed reading as follows: "Notice to buyer: (1) Do not sign this agreement before you read it or if it contains any blank spaces to be filled in. (2) You are entitled to a completely filled-in copy of this agreement. (3) You can prepay the full amount due under this agreement at any time and obtain a partial refund of the finance charge if it is $1 or more. Because of the way the amount of this refund will be figured, the time when you prepay could increase the ultimate cost of credit under this agreement. (4) If you desire to pay off in advance the full amount due, the amount of the refund you are entitled to, if any, will be furnished upon request."

(d) Where the contract includes a finance charge that is determined on the precomputed basis and provides for the actuarial method for computing the unearned portion of the finance charge upon prepayment in full, a notice in at least 10-point bold type if the contract is printed reading as follows: "Notice to buyer: (1) Do not sign this agreement before you read it or if it contains any blank spaces to be filled in. (2) You are entitled to a completely filled-in copy of this agreement. (3) You can prepay the full amount due under this agreement at any time and obtain a partial refund of the finance charge if it is $1 or more. (4) If you desire to pay off in advance the full amount due, the amount of the refund you are entitled to, if any, will be furnished upon request."

(e) Where the contract includes a finance charge that is determined on the simple-interest basis, a notice in at least 10-point bold type if the contract is printed reading as follows: "Notice to buyer: (1) Do not sign this agreement before you read it or if it contains any blank spaces to be filled in. (2) You are entitled to a completely filled-in copy of this agreement. (3) You can prepay the full amount due under this agreement at any time. (4) If you desire to pay off in advance the full amount due, the amount which is outstanding will be furnished upon request."

(f) This section shall become operative on October 1, 1995.

(g) The form specified in this section may be used before October 1, 1995, to comply with the provisions of this section as amended and repealed by Section 2 of Chapter 888 of the Statutes of 1994.

1803.3. Except as provided in Article 8 (commencing with Section 1808.1) of this chapter, a contract shall contain the following:

(a) The names of the seller and the buyer, the place of business of the seller, the residence or place of business of the buyer as specified by the buyer and a description of the goods or services sufficient to identify them. Services or multiple items of goods may be described in general terms and may be described in detail sufficient to identify them in a separate writing.

(b) Every contract subject to this chapter shall contain the disclosures required by Regulation Z whether or not Regulation Z applies to the transaction. In addition, to the extent applicable, the contract shall contain the other disclosures and notices required by, and shall satisfy the requirements and limitations of, this section. The disclosures required by subdivision (c) may be itemized or subtotaled to a greater extent than as required by that subdivision and shall be made together and in the sequence set forth in that subdivision. No particular terminology is required to disclose the items set forth in subdivision (c) except as therein expressly provided. Except as otherwise provided by this subdivision (b), these disclosures and notices may appear in the contract in any location or sequence and may be combined or interspersed with other provisions of the contract.

(c) The contract shall contain the following disclosures, as applicable, which shall be labeled "itemization of the amount financed":

(1) (A) The cash price, exclusive of taxes imposed on the sale.

(B) Taxes imposed on the sale.

(C) The total of the above.

(2) An itemization of the amount to be paid to any public officer for official fees.

(3) The aggregate amount of premiums agreed, upon execution of the contract, to be paid for policies of insurance included in the contract, excluding the amount of any insurance premium included in the finance charge.

(4) A subtotal representing the sum of the foregoing items.

(5) The amount of the buyer's downpayment, which downpayment shall not include any administrative finance charge charged, received, or collected by the seller pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 1805.1 and as shown as item (6), itemized to show the following:

(A) The net agreed value of the property being traded in.

(B) The amount of any portion of downpayment to be deferred until not later than the due date of the second regularly scheduled installment under the contract and which is not subject to a finance charge.

(C) The amount of any manufacturer's rebate applied or to be applied to the downpayment.

(D) The remaining amount paid or to be paid by the buyer as a downpayment.

(6) The amount of any administrative finance charge, labeled "prepaid finance charge."

(7) The difference between item (4) and the sum of items (5) and (6), labeled "amount financed."

(d) If the payment of all or a portion of the downpayment is to be deferred, the deferred payment shall be reflected in the payment schedule disclosed pursuant to Regulation Z.

(e) If the downpayment includes property being traded in, the contract shall contain a brief description of that property.

(f) (1) Where the contract includes a finance charge determined on the precomputed basis, the contract shall identify the method of computing the unearned portion of the finance charge in the event of prepayment in full of the buyer's obligation and contain a statement of the amount or method of computation of any charge that may be deducted from the amount of any such unearned finance charge in computing the amount that will be credited to the obligation or refunded to the buyer. Reference to the Rule of 78's, the sum of the digits, the sum of the periodic time balances or the actuarial method shall constitute a sufficient identification of the method of computing the unearned portion of the finance charge.

(2) Where the contract includes a finance charge which is determined on the simple-interest basis but provides for a minimum finance charge in the event of prepayment in full, the contract shall contain a statement of that fact and the amount of the minimum finance charge or its method of calculation.

(g) The contract shall contain an itemization of any insurance included as part of the amount financed disclosed pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (c) and of any insurance included as part of the finance charge. The itemization shall identify the type of insurance coverage and the premium charged therefor, and, if the insurance expires before the date of the last scheduled installment included in the repayment schedule, the term of the insurance shall be stated.

1803.4. The seller shall not obtain the signature of the buyer to a contract when it contains blank spaces to be filled in after it has been signed.

1803.6. (a) A contract may provide that for each installment in default the buyer shall pay a delinquency charge not in excess of one of the following amounts:

(1) For a period in default of not less than 10 days, an amount not in excess of ten dollars ($10).

(2) For a period in default of not less than 15 days, an amount not in excess of fifteen dollars ($15).

(b) Only one delinquency charge may be collected on any installment regardless of the period during which it remains in default. Payments timely received by the seller under a written extension or deferral agreement shall not be subject to any delinquency charge. The contract may also provide for payment of any actual and reasonable costs of collection occasioned by removal of the goods from the state without written permission of the holder, or by the failure of the buyer to notify the holder of any change of residence, or by the failure of the buyer to communicate with the holder for a period of 45 days after any default in making payments due under the contract.

1803.7. The seller shall deliver to the buyer at the time of the buyer's signature a legible copy of the contract or of any other document which the seller has required or requested the buyer to sign, and which he has signed, during the contract negotiation. In addition to the penalties provided under Article 12.2 (commencing with Section 1812.6) of this chapter, until the seller delivers such documents, the buyer shall be obligated to pay only the cash price. Any acknowledgment by the buyer of delivery of a copy of such documents shall be printed or written in a size equal to a least 10-point bold type and, if contained in the contract shall also appear directly above the space reserved for the buyer's signature. The buyer's written acknowledgment, conforming to the requirements of this section of delivery of a copy of such documents shall be a rebuttable presumption of such delivery and of compliance with this section and Section 1803.4, in any action or proceeding by or against an assignee of the contract without knowledge to the contrary when he purchases the contract.

If the holder furnishes the buyer a copy of such documents, or a notice containing the items required by Section 1803.3 and stating that the buyer should notify the holder in writing within 30 days if he was not furnished a copy of the contract or of any other document which the seller had required or requested the buyer to sign, and which he did sign, during the contract negotiation, and no such notification is given, it shall be conclusively presumed in favor of the third party that copies of such documents were furnished as required by Sections 1803. 4 and 1803.7.

1803.9. If it is explicitly understood between the seller and the buyer that all or any part of the cash price will be paid from the proceeds of a loan to be obtained by the buyer from a third party, the contract of sale or purchase order may be rescinded at the election of the buyer, and all considerations thereupon shall be returned by the respective parties without further demand, if the buyer is unable to obtain such third-party financing upon reasonable terms after having made a reasonable effort to obtain it, and buyer notifies the seller of the rescission within three business days.

1804.1. No contract or obligation shall contain any provision by which:

(a) The buyer agrees not to assert against a seller a claim or defense arising out of the sale or agrees not to assert against an assignee such a claim or defense other than as provided in Section 1804.2.

(b) In the absence of the buyer's default in the performance of any of his or her obligations, the holder may accelerate the maturity of any part or all of the amount owing thereunder.

(c) A power of attorney is given to confess judgment in this state, or an assignment of wages is given; provided, that nothing herein contained shall prohibit the giving of an assignment of wages contained in a separate instrument, executed pursuant to Section 300 of the Labor Code.

(d) The seller or holder of the contract or other person acting on his or her behalf is given authority to enter upon the buyer's premises unlawfully or to commit any breach of the peace in the repossession of goods.(e) The buyer waives any right of action against the seller or holder of the contract or other person acting on his or her behalf, for any illegal act committed in the collection of payments under the contract or in the repossession of goods.

(f) The buyer executes a power of attorney appointing the seller or holder of the contract, or other person acting on his or her behalf, as the buyer's agent in collection of payments under the contract or in the repossession of goods.

(g) The buyer relieves the seller from liability for any legal remedies which the buyer may have against the seller under the contract or any separate instrument executed in connection therewith.

(h) The buyer agrees to the payment of any charge by reason of the exercise of his or her right to rescind or void the contract.

(i) The seller or holder of the contract is given the right to commence an action on a contract under the provisions of this chapter in a county other than the county in which the contract was in fact signed by the buyer, the county in which the buyer resides at the commencement of the action, the county in which the buyer resided at the time that the contract was entered into, or in the county in which the goods purchased pursuant to the contract have been so affixed to real property as to become a part of such real property.

(j) The seller takes a security interest, other than a mechanics' lien, in the buyer's real property which is the buyer's primary residence where the buyer is a person who is 65 years of age or older and the contract is for a home improvement, as defined in Section 7151.2 of the Business and Professions Code.

1804.4. Any provision in a contract which is prohibited by this chapter shall be void but shall not otherwise affect the validity of the contract.

1805.1. The holder of the contract shall not charge, collect, or receive a finance charge which exceeds the dollar amount shown pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 1803.3, except to the extent (a) caused by the holder's receipt of one or more payments under a contract which provides for determination of the finance charge or a portion thereof on the 365-day basis at a time or times other than as originally scheduled, whether or not the parties enter into an agreement pursuant to Section 1807.1, (b) permitted by paragraph (2), (3), or (4) of subdivision (c) of Section 226.17 of Regulation Z, or (3) permitted by Section 1805.8.

No annual fee or charge shall be made in any retail installment contract.

1805.8. The maximum rate of finance charge which may be imposed on amounts advanced by the holder subsequent to the execution of the contract for insurance, repairs to or preservation of the goods, or preservation of the holder's security interest therein, shall not exceed the annual percentage rate disclosed pursuant to item (b) of Section 1803.3.

1805.9. No contract shall provide for a finance charge which is determined in part by the precomputed basis and in part by the simple-interest basis, except for any finance charge permitted by Section 1805.8.

1806.3. (a) Notwithstanding any provision of a contract to the contrary, the buyer may pay at any time before maturity the entire indebtedness evidenced by the contract without penalty. In the event of prepayment in full:

(1) If the finance charge was determined on the precomputed basis, the amount required to repay the contract shall be the outstanding contract balance as of that date, provided, however, that the buyer shall be entitled to a refund credit in the amount of the unearned portion of the finance charge. The amount of the unearned portion of the finance charge shall be at least as great a proportion of the finance charge, or if the contract has been extended, deferred, or refinanced, of the additional charge therefor, as the sum of the periodic monthly time balances payable more than 15 days after the date of prepayment bears to the sum of all the periodic monthly time balances under the schedule of installments in the contract or, if the contract has been extended, deferred or refinanced, as so extended, deferred or refinanced. Where the amount of the refund credit is less than one dollar ($1), no refund credit need be made by the holder. Any refund credit in the amount of one dollar ($1) or more may be made in cash or credited to the outstanding obligations of the buyer under the contract.

(2) If the finance charge or a portion thereof was determined on the simple-interest basis, the amount required to prepay the contract shall be the outstanding contract balance as of that date, including any earned finance charges which are unpaid as of that date, and provided further that in cases where the finance charge or a portion thereof is determined on the 360-day basis, the payments theretofore received will be assumed to have been received on their respective due dates regardless of the actual dates on which those payments were received.

(b) Notwithstanding any provision of a contract to the contrary, whenever the indebtedness created by any retail installment contract is satisfied prior to its maturity through surrender of the collateral, repossession of the collateral, redemption of the collateral after repossession, or any judgment, the outstanding obligation of the buyer shall be determined as provided in subdivision (a); provided further that the buyer's outstanding obligation shall be computed by the holder as of the date the holder recovers the value of the collateral through disposition thereof or judgment is entered or, if the holder elects to keep the collateral in satisfaction of the buyer's indebtedness, as of the date the holder takes possession of the collateral.

(c) This section does not preclude the collection or retention by the holder of any delinquency charge made pursuant to Section 1803.6.

1807.3. (a) If any payment, other than a deferred downpayment, under a contract or refinancing agreement is more than twice the amount of an otherwise regularly scheduled equal payment, the contract or refinancing agreement shall contain the following provision:

"The payment schedule contained in this contract requires that you make a balloon payment of

$_______________________
(Amount of balloon payment)

which is a payment more than double the amount of the regular payments. You have an absolute right to obtain a new payment schedule if you default in the payment of any balloon payment."

(b) If the buyer defaults in the payment of any balloon payment, he or she shall be given an absolute right to obtain a new payment schedule. Unless agreed to by the buyer, the periodic payments under the new schedule shall not be substantially greater than the average of the preceding installments.

1808.4. Until the seller delivers to the buyer the memorandum as provided in Sections 1808.2 and 1808.3, the buyer shall be obligated to pay only the cash price of the subsequent purchase.

1810.1. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this article to the contrary, before the first transaction is made on any retail installment account, the seller shall disclose to the buyer in a single written statement, which the buyer may retain, in terminology consistent with the requirements of Section 1810.3, each of the following items, to the extent applicable:

(a) The conditions under which a finance charge may be imposed, including an explanation of the time period, if any, within which any credit extended may be paid without incurring a finance charge.

(b) The method of determining the balance upon which a finance charge may be imposed.

(c) The method of determining the amount of the finance charge, including the method of determining any minimum, charge which may be imposed as a finance charge.

(d) Where one or more periodic rates may be used to compute the finance charge, each such rate, the range of balances to which it is applicable, and the corresponding annual percentage rate determined by multiplying the periodic rate by the number of periods in a year.

(e) The conditions under which any other charges may be imposed, and the method by which they will be determined.

(f) The conditions under which the creditor may retain or acquire any security interest in any property to secure the payment of any credit extended on the account, and a description or identification of the type of the interest or interests which may be so retained, or acquired.

(g) The minimum periodic payment required.

In addition to the penalties provided under Article 12.2 (commencing with Section 1812.6) of this chapter, until the seller delivers the written statement required by this section, the buyer shall be obligated to pay only the cash price of the goods or services.

1810.3. (a) Except in the case of an account which the seller deems to be uncollectible or with respect to which delinquency collection procedures have been instituted, the seller of any retail installment account shall mail or deliver to the buyer for each billing cycle at the end of which there is an outstanding debit balance in excess of one dollar ($1) in that account or with respect to which a finance charge is imposed, a statement or statements which the buyer may retain, setting forth in accordance with subdivision (c) each of the following items to the extent applicable:

(1) The outstanding balance in the account at the beginning of the billing cycle, using the term "previous balance."

(2) The amount and date of each extension of credit or the date the extension of credit is debited to the account during the billing cycle and, unless previously furnished, a brief identification of any goods or services purchased or other extension of credit.

(3) The total amounts credited to the account during the billing cycle for payments, using the term "payment," and for other credits, including returns, rebates of finance charges, and adjustments, using the term "credits," and unless previously furnished, a brief identification of each of the items included in the other credits.

(4) The amount of any finance charge, using the term "finance charge," debited to the account during the billing cycle, itemized and identified to show the amounts, if any, due to the application of periodic rates and the amount of any other charge included in the finance charge, such as a minimum charge, using appropriate descriptive terminology.

(5) Each periodic rate, using the term "periodic rate" (or "rates"), that may be used to compute the finance charge (whether or not applied during the billing cycle), and the range of balances to which it is applicable.

(6) The balance on which the finance charge was computed, and a statement of how that balance was determined. If any balance is determined without first deducting all credits during the billing cycle, that fact and the amount of the credits shall also be disclosed.

(7) The closing date of the billing cycle and the outstanding balance in the account on that date, using the term "new balance," accompanied by the statement of the date by which, or the period, if any, within which, payment must be made to avoid additional finance charges.

(b) The seller shall mail or deliver the statements required by subdivision (a) at least 14 days prior to any date or the end of any time period required to be disclosed under paragraph (7) of subdivision (a) in order for the consumer to avoid an additional finance or other charge. A seller that fails to meet this requirement shall not collect any finance or other charges imposed as a result of the failure.

(c) The disclosures required by subdivision (a) may be made on the face of the periodic statement or on its reverse side. In addition, the disclosures required by subdivision (a) may be made on the periodic statement supplemented by separate statement forms if they are enclosed together and delivered to the customer at the same time and if all of the following conditions are met:

(1) The disclosures required by paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) shall appear on the face of the periodic statement. If the amounts and dates of the charges and credits required to be disclosed under paragraphs (2) and (3) of subdivision (a) are not itemized on the face or reverse side of the periodic statement, they shall be disclosed on a separate statement or separate slips which shall accompany the periodic statement and identify each charge and credit and show the date and amount thereof. Identification of goods or services purchased may be made on an accompanying slip or by symbol relating to an identification list printed on the statement. If the disclosures required under paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) are not itemized on the face or reverse side of the periodic statement, they shall be disclosed on a separate statement which shall accompany the periodic statement.

(2) The disclosures required by paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) and a reference to the amounts required to be disclosed under paragraphs (4) and (6) of subdivision (a), if not disclosed together on the face or the reverse side of the periodic statement, shall appear together on the face of a single supplemental statement which shall accompany the periodic statement.

(3) The face of the periodic statement shall contain one of the following notices, as applicable: "NOTICE: See reverse side for important information" or "NOTICE: See accompanying statement(s) for important information" or "NOTICE: See reverse side and accompanying statement(s) for important information."

(4) The disclosures shall not be separated so as to confuse or mislead the customer, or to obscure or detract attention from the information required to be disclosed.

(d) If any change is to be made in terms of a retail installment account previously disclosed to the buyer, the seller shall mail or deliver to the buyer written disclosure of the proposed change not less than 30 days prior to the effective date of the change or 30 days prior to the beginning of the billing cycle within which the change will become effective, whichever is the earlier date. When the change involves a reduction of any component of a finance charge or other charge, the notice shall be sufficient if it appears on or accompanies the periodic statements mailed or delivered to buyers receiving periodic statements in the ordinary course of business. When the change involves an increase in any component of a finance charge, as defined in Section 1802.10, or involves a change in a charge permitted by Section 1810.4 or a change in the attorney's fee provision in the agreement pursuant to Section 1810.4, the change shall be effective only with respect to purchases made on or after the effective date of the change.

(e) (1) If any outstanding credit balance in excess of one dollar ($1) exists in a retail installment account, the seller shall mail or deliver to the buyer at the end of the billing cycle in which the credit balance is created either of the following:

(A) A cash refund in the amount of the outstanding credit.

(B) A statement setting forth the credit balance, and thereafter shall mail or deliver to the buyer a statement setting forth the credit balance no fewer than two additional times during the six-month period following creation of the credit balance.

(2) If the credit balance exists for a period of 90 days, the seller shall, at his or her option, do either of the following:

(A) Notify the buyer of his or her right to request and receive a cash refund in the amount of the outstanding credit balance in two successive statements covering, respectively, each of the two successive billing cycles immediately following the 90-day period. The notice is to be accomplished by a clear and conspicuous disclosure on or enclosed with each of the two successive statements, each of which shall be accompanied by a self-addressed return envelope. The disclosure shall contain the following information and may be in the following form:

"We owe you ____. Your credit balance will be refunded on request. If you don't request a refund, six months from the first appearance of a "credit balance" on your bill, your credit blance will be refunded automatically.

"If your credit balance is $1.00 or less, it will not be refunded unless requested, and after 6 months, it will not be credited against future purchases.

"You may obtain a refund of your credit balance by mail by presenting your statement at our store or by returning the top half of your statement in the enclosed envelope."

If between the sending of the first notice and the sending of the second notice required by this subparagraph, the outstanding credit balance is refunded to the buyer or otherwise disposed of, the sending of the second notice shall not be required.

(B) Refund to the buyer the outstanding credit balance at any time after the credit balance is created in the buyer's account and prior to the date by which the first notice of the outstanding balance would have been sent had the seller elected to proceed under subparagraph (A).

(f) (1) If a retail installment account with an outstanding credit balance in excess of one dollar ($1) which has been determined to be correct by the seller is dormant for a period of 180 days after the credit balance is created in the buyer's account, the seller shall mail or deliver a refund in the amount of the outstanding credit balance to the buyer at the buyer's last known address.

(2) If any refund is returned to the seller with a notification to the effect that the addressee is not located at the address to which it was sent, the seller shall make one remailing of the refund with an address correction request, and shall mail the refund to the corrected address, if it is obtained.

(3) If the refund reflecting an outstanding credit balance in excess of twenty-five dollars ($25) is again returned, the seller shall reinstate the full amount of the outstanding credit balance on the buyer's account to be retained and credited against future purchases for one year from the date on which the remailed refund was returned. The seller may continue to attempt to obtain a current mailing address for the buyer by whatever means the seller deems appropriate. Except as provided in subdivision (g), the seller shall not be required to take any further action with respect to sending any statement of the credit balance or otherwise with respect to the credit balance, unless the buyer of the account thereafter requests a refund of the credit balance, in which event the seller shall either make the refund or provide a written explanation as provided in paragraph (5) of this subdivision.

(4) If a remailed refund reflecting an outstanding credit balance of twenty-five dollars ($25) or less is again returned, the seller, except as provided in subdivision (g), shall not be required to take any further action with respect to sending any statement of the credit balance to the buyer or otherwise with respect to the credit balance, unless the buyer of the account thereafter requests a refund of the credit balance, in which event the seller shall either make the refund or provide a written explanation as provided in paragraph (5) of this subdivision.

(5) If a buyer requests, in person or by mail, a refund of a credit balance in any amount which has been reflected at any time on the buyer's account, the seller shall, within 30 days of receipt of the request, either refund the amount requested, or furnish the customer with a written explanation, with supporting documentation when available, of the reasons for refusing to refund the amount requested.

(6) If a buyer, in writing, requests a seller to retain an outstanding credit balance on his or her account, the seller shall not be required to give notification as otherwise required by subdivisions (e) and (f).

(g) If an outstanding credit balance remains unrefundable for three years from the date it was created in the buyer's account, then the amount of the buyer's outstanding credit balance shall escheat to the state as property included within Section 1520 of the Code of Civil Procedure. Those funds shall be paid or delivered to the Controller, and may thereafter be claimed, as specified in Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 1500) of Title 10 of Part 4 of the Code of Civil Procedure.

(h) For the purposes of this section, an outstanding credit balance is created at the end of the billing cycle in which the credit balance is first recorded on a buyer's account and is created anew at the end of the billing cycle in which the recorded amount of an existing credit balance is changed because of the buyer's use of his or her account.

1810.12. (a) Notwithstanding Section 1810.4, a seller or holder of a retail installment account may, subject to subdivision (d) of Section 1810.3, provide that for each installment in default the buyer shall pay a delinquency charge not in excess of one of the following amounts:

(1) For a period in default of not less than 10 days, an amount not in excess of ten dollars ($10).

(2) For a period in default of not less than 15 days, an amount not in excess of fifteen dollars ($15).

(b) Only one delinquency charge may be collected on any installment regardless of the period during which it remains in default. No delinquency charge shall be imposed for any default of payment on any payment due prior to the mailing or delivery to the buyer of the written disclosure concerning the delinquency charge provided by the seller or holder of a retail installment account pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 1810.3. Payments timely received by the seller under a written extension or deferral agreement shall not be subject to any delinquency charge. The agreement may also provide for payment of any actual and reasonable costs of collection occasioned by removal of the goods from the state without written permission of the holder, or by the failure of the buyer to notify the holder of any change of residence, or by the failure of the buyer to communicate with the holder for a period of 45 days after any default in making payments due under the agreement.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (b) of Section 1810.3, the seller or holder of a retail installment account shall provide a minimum of 20 days between the monthly billing date and the date upon which the minimum payment is due, exclusive of the applicable grace period provided in subdivision (a).

1811.1. Reasonable attorney's fees and costs shall be awarded to the prevailing party in any action on a contract or installment account subject to the provisions of this chapter regardless of whether such action is instituted by the seller, holder or buyer. Where the defendant alleges in his answer that he tendered to the plaintiff the full amount to which he was entitled, and thereupon deposits in court, for the plaintiff, the amount so tendered, and the allegation is found to be true, then the defendant is deemed to be a prevailing party within the meaning of this article.

1812.2. In the event of any default by the buyer in the performance of his obligations under a contract or installment account, the holder, pursuant to any rights granted therein, may proceed to recover judgment for the balance due without retaking the goods, or he may retake the goods and proceed as hereinafter provided. If he retakes the goods, he shall, within 10 days, give notice to the buyer of his intention to sell the goods at public sale or give notice to the buyer of his intention to retain the goods in satisfaction of the balance due. The notice must state the amount of the overdue payments, that the buyer must pay, if he pays within 10 days of the notice, in order to redeem the goods. In either case the buyer shall have an absolute right to redeem the goods within 10 days after the notice is given by paying or tendering the amount owing under the contract. If the holder gives notice of election to sell the goods the buyer shall also have the absolute right to redeem the goods at any time before sale by paying or tendering the amounts specified above and also any expense reasonably incurred by the seller or holder in good faith in repairing, reconditioning the goods or preparing them for sale. If the holder gives notice of his intention to retain the goods in satisfaction of the indebtedness he shall be deemed to have done so at the end of the 10-day period if the goods are not redeemed; at the time the notice is given, the holder shall furnish the buyer a written statement of the sum due under the contract and the expenses provided for in this section. For failure to render such a statement the holder shall forfeit to the buyer ten dollars ($10) and also be liable to him for all damages suffered because of such failure.

1812.5. If the proceeds of the sale are not sufficient to cover items (1), (2) and (3) of Section 1812.4, the holder may not recover the deficiency from the buyer or from anyone who has succeeded to the obligations of the buyer.

1812.7. In case of failure by any person to comply with the provisions of this chapter, such person or any person who acquires a contract or installment account with knowledge of such noncompliance is barred from recovery of any finance charge or of any delinquency, collection, extension, deferral or refinance charge imposed in connection with such contract or installment account and the buyer shall have the right to recover from such person an amount equal to any of such charges paid by the buyer.

1812.8. Notwithstanding the provisions of this article, any failure to comply with any provision of this chapter may be corrected by the holder in accordance with the provisions of this section, provided that a willful violation may not be corrected, and a correction which will increase the amount owed by the buyer or the amount of any payment shall not be effective unless the buyer concurs in writing to the correction. If a violation is corrected by the holder in accordance with the provisions of this section, neither the seller nor the holder shall be subject to any penalty under this article. The correction shall be made by delivery to the buyer of a corrected copy of the contract within 30 days of the execution of the original contract by the buyer. Any amount improperly collected from the buyer shall be credited against the indebtedness evidenced by the contract.

1812.9. In any case in which a person willfully violates any provision of this chapter in connection with the imposition, computation or disclosures of or relating to a finance charge on a consolidated total of two or more contracts under the provisions of Article 8 (commencing with Section 1808.1) of this chapter, the buyer may recover from such person an amount equal to three times the total of the finance charges and any delinquency, collection, extension, deferral or refinance charges imposed, contracted for or received on all contracts included in the consolidated total and the seller shall be barred from the recovery of any such charges.

1812.10. (a) An action on a contract or installment account under this chapter shall be tried in the superior court in the county where the contract was in fact signed by the buyer, where the buyer resided at the time the contract was entered into, where the buyer resides at the commencement of the action, or where the goods purchased pursuant to the contract have been so affixed to real property as to become a part of that real property.

(b) In the superior court designated as the proper court in subdivision (a), the proper court location for trial of an action under this chapter is the location where the court tries that type of action that is nearest or most accessible to where the contract was in fact signed by the buyer, where the buyer resided at the time the contract was entered into, where the buyer resides at the commencement of the action, or where the goods purchased pursuant to the contract have been so affixed to real property as to become a part of that real property. Otherwise, any location of the superior court designated as the proper court in subdivision (a) is the proper court location for the trial of the action. The court may specify by local rule the nearest or most accessible court location where the court tries that type of case.

(c) In any action subject to this section, concurrently with the filing of the complaint, the plaintiff shall file an affidavit stating facts showing that the action has been commenced in a superior court and court location described in this section as a proper place for the trial of the action. Those facts may be stated in a verified complaint and shall not be stated on information or belief. When that affidavit is filed with the complaint, a copy thereof shall be served with the summons. If a plaintiff fails to file the affidavit or state facts in a verified complaint required by this section, no further proceedings may occur, but the court shall, upon its own motion or upon motion of any party, dismiss the action without prejudice. The court may, on terms that are just, permit the affidavit to be filed subsequent to the filing of the complaint and a copy of the affidavit shall be served on the defendant. The time to answer or otherwise plead shall date from that service.

1812.20. Notwithstanding Section 1801.6, no person shall require a purchaser of goods or services to obtain financing from any particular source. Any person who violates this section shall be subject to the penalty provided in Section 1812.6.

1812.80. (a) The Legislature finds that the health studio industry has a significant impact upon the economy and well-being of this state and its local communities; and that the provisions of this title relating to contracts for health studio services are necessary for the public welfare.

(b) The Legislature declares that the purpose of this title is to safeguard the public against fraud, deceit, imposition and financial hardship, and to foster and encourage competition, fair dealing, and prosperity in the field of health studio services by prohibiting or restricting false or misleading advertising, onerous contract terms, harmful financial practices, and other unfair, dishonest, deceptive, destructive, unscrupulous, fraudulent, and discriminatory practices by which the public has been injured in connection with contracts for health studio services.

1812.81. As used in this title, "contract for health studio services" means a contract for instruction, training or assistance in physical culture, body building, exercising, reducing, figure development, or any other such physical skill, or for the use by an individual patron of the facilities of a health studio, gymnasium or other facility used for any of the above purposes, or for membership in any group, club, association or organization formed for any of the above purposes; but does not include (a) contracts for professional services rendered or furnished by a person licensed under the provisions of Division 2 (commencing with Section 500) of the Business and Professions Code, (b) contracts for instruction at schools operating pursuant to the provisions of the Education Code, or (c) contracts for instruction, training, or assistance relating to diet or control of eating habits not involving physical culture, body building, exercising, figure development, or any other such physical skill.

1812.82. Every contract for health studio services shall be in writing and shall be subject to the provisions of this title. A copy of the written contract shall be given to the customer at the time he signs the contract.

1812.84. (a) A contract for health studio services may not require payments or financing by the buyer to exceed the term of the contract, nor may the term of the contract exceed three years. This subdivision does not apply to a member's obligation to pay valid, outstanding moneys due under the contract, including moneys to be paid pursuant to a termination notice period in the contract in which the termination notice period does not exceed 30 days.

(b) A contract for health studio services shall include a statement printed in a size at least 14-point type that discloses the length of the term of the contract. This statement shall be placed above the space reserved for the signature of the buyer.

1812.85. (a) Every contract for health studio services shall provide that performance of the agreed-upon services will begin within six months after the date the contract is entered into. The consumer may cancel the contract and receive a pro rata refund if the health studio fails to provide the specific facilities advertised or offered in writing by the time indicated. If no time is indicated in the contract, the consumer may cancel the contract within six months after the execution of the contract and shall receive a pro rata refund. If a health studio fails to meet a timeline set forth in this section, the consumer may cancel the contract at any time after the expiration of the timeline. However, if following the expiration of the timeline, the health studio provides the advertised or agreed-upon services, the consumer may cancel the contract up to 10 days after those services are provided.

(b) (1) Every contract for health studio services shall, in addition, contain on its face, and in close proximity to the space reserved for the signature of the buyer, a conspicuous statement in a size equal to at least 10-point boldface type, as follows:

"You, the buyer, may cancel this agreement at any time prior to midnight of the fifth business day of the health studio after the date of this agreement, excluding Sundays and holidays. To cancel this agreement, mail or deliver a signed and dated notice, or send a telegram which states that you, the buyer, are canceling this agreement, or words of similar effect. The notice shall be sent to,

_________________________________________________
(Name of health studio operator)

at _______________________________________________
    (Address of health studio operator)

(2) The contract for health studio services shall contain on the first page, in a type size no smaller than that generally used in the body of the document, the following: (A) the name and address of the health studio operator to which the notice of cancellation is to be mailed, and (B) the date the buyer signed the contract.

(3) The contract shall provide a description of the services, facilities, and hours of access to which the consumer is entitled. Any services, facilities, and hours of access that are not described in the contract shall be considered optional services, and these optional services shall be considered as separate contracts for the purposes of this title and Section 1812.83.

(4) Until the health studio operator has complied with this section, the buyer may cancel the contract for health studio services.

(5) All moneys paid pursuant to a contract for health studio services shall be refunded within 10 days after receipt of the notice of cancellation, except that payment shall be made for any health studio services received prior to cancellation.

(c) If at any time during the term of the contract, including a transfer of the contractual obligation, the health studio eliminates or substantially reduces the scope of the facilities, such as swimming pools or tennis courts, that were described in the contract, in an advertisement relating to the specific location, or in a written offer, and available to the consumer upon execution of the contract, the consumer may cancel the contract and receive a pro rata refund. The consumer may not cancel the contract pursuant to this subdivision if the health studio, after giving reasonable notice to its members, temporarily takes facilities out of operation for reasonable repairs, modifications, substitutions, or improvements. This subdivision shall not be interpreted to give the consumer the right to cancel a contract because of changes to the type or quantity of classes or equipment offered, provided the consumer is informed in the contract that the health studio reserves the right to make changes to the type or quantity of classes or equipment offered and the changes to the type or quantity of classes or equipment offered are reasonable under the circumstances.

(d) (1) If a contract for health studio services requires payment of one thousand five hundred dollars ($1,500) to two thousand dollars ($2,000), inclusive, including initiation fees or initial membership fees, by the person receiving the services or the use of the facility, the person shall have the right to cancel the contract within 20 days after the contract is executed.

(2) If a contract for health studio services requires payment of two thousand one dollars ($2,001) to two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500), inclusive, including initiation fees or initial membership fees, by the person receiving the services or the use of the facility, the person shall have the right to cancel the contract within 30 days after the contract is executed.

(3) If a contract for health studio services requires payment of two thousand five hundred one dollars ($2,501) or more, including initiation fees or initial membership fees, by the person receiving the services or the use of the facility, the person shall have the right to cancel the contract within 45 days after the contract is executed.

(4) The right of cancellation provided in this subdivision shall be set out in the membership contract.

(5) The rights and remedies under this paragraph are cumulative to any rights and remedies under other law.

(6) A health studio entering into a contract for health studio services that requires a payment of less than one thousand five hundred dollars ($1,500), including initiation or initial membership fees and exclusive of interest or finance charges, by the person receiving the services or the use of the facilities, is not required to comply with paragraph (1), (2), or (3).

(e) Upon cancellation, the consumer shall be liable only for that portion of the total contract payment, including initiation fees and other charges however denominated, that has been available for use by the consumer, based upon a pro rata calculation over the term of the contract. The remaining portion of the contract payment shall be returned to the consumer by the health studio.

1812.86. (a) No contract for health studio services shall require payment by the person receiving the services or the use of the facilities of a total amount in excess of the amount specified in subdivision (b) or (c).

(b) The limit specified in subdivision (a) shall, on and after January 1, 2006, be three thousand dollars ($3,000), inclusive of initiation or initial membership fees and exclusive of interest or finance charges.

(c) The limit in subdivision (a) shall, on and after January 1, 2010, be four thousand four hundred dollars ($4,400), inclusive of initiation or initial membership fees and exclusive of interest or finance charges.

1812.89. (a) (1) Every contract for health studio services shall contain a clause providing that if, by reason of death or disability, the person agreeing to receive services is unable to receive all services for which he has contracted, he and his estate shall be relieved from the obligation of making payment for services other than those received prior to death or the onset of disability, and that if he has prepaid any sum for services, so much of such sum as is allocable to services he has not taken shall be promptly refunded to him or his representative.

(2) In every case in which a person has prepaid a sum for services under a contract for health studio services, and by reason of death or disability, is unable to receive all such services, the party agreeing to furnish such services shall, on request, immediately refund to such person or his personal representative such amount of the sum prepaid as is proportionate to the amount of services not received.

(3) For the purposes of this section, "disability" means a condition which precludes the buyer from physically using the facilities and the condition is verified by a physician.

(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of any contract to the contrary, whenever the contract price is payable in installments and the buyer is relieved from making further payments or entitled to a refund under this section, the amount of the contract price allocable to services not received shall represent at least as great a proportion of the total contract price as the sum of the periodic monthly balances not yet due bears to the sum of all the periodic monthly balances under the schedule of installments in the contract.

(b) (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), every contract for health studio services shall contain a clause providing that if the person agreeing to receive health studio services moves further than 25 miles from the health studio and is unable to transfer the contract to a comparable facility, such person shall be relieved from the obligation of making payment for services other than those received prior to the move, and if such person has prepaid any sum for health studio services, so much of such sum as is allocable to services he or she has not taken shall be promptly refunded.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a contract for health studio services may contain a clause providing that if the person agreeing to receive health studio services moves further than 25 miles from the health studio and is unable to transfer the contract to a comparable facility, such person may be charged a predetermined fee not exceeding one hundred dollars ($100), or, if more than half the life of the contract has expired, such person may be charged a predetermined fee not exceeding fifty dollars ($50).

1812.90. The provisions of this title are not exclusive and do not relieve the parties or the contracts subject thereto from compliance with all other applicable provisions of law.

1812.91. Any contract for health studio services which does not comply with the applicable provisions of this title shall be void and unenforceable as contrary to public policy.

1812.92. Any contract for health studio services entered into in reliance upon any willful and false, fraudulent, or misleading information, representation, notice or advertisement of the seller shall be void and unenforceable.

1812.93. Any waiver of the buyer of the provisions of this title shall be deemed contrary to public policy and shall be void and unenforceable.

1812.94. (a) Any buyer injured by a violation of this title may bring an action for the recovery of damages. Judgment may be entered for three times the amount at which the actual damages are assessed plus reasonable attorney fees.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of this title, any failure to comply with any provision of this title may be corrected within 30 days after the execution of the contract by the buyer, and, if so corrected, neither the seller nor the holder shall be subject to any penalty under this title, provided that any correction which increases any monthly payment, the number of payments, or the total amount due, must be concurred in, in writing, by the buyer. "Holder" includes the seller who acquires the contract or, if the contract is purchased by a financing agency or other assignee, the financing agency or other assignee.

1812.96. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (c) or (d), all money received by the seller of health studio services from a consumer for a health studio facility that has not yet opened for business shall be held in trust and shall be deposited in a trust account established in a state or federally chartered bank or savings association. The seller shall not draw, transfer, or encumber any of the money held in trust until five business days after the health studio facility has opened and the seller has fully paid refunds to consumers who canceled their contracts as provided in subdivision (b) or in Section 1812.85.

(b) In addition to any other cancellation rights, a consumer who pays any money under a contract for health studio services for a health studio facility that has not yet opened for business has the right to cancel the contract and receive a full refund at any time prior to midnight of the fifth business day after the date the health studio opens for business. The cancellation right shall be set forth in the contract. The refund shall be paid within 10 days of receipt of notice of cancellation.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), a seller of health studio services may draw on money held in trust to pay refunds or may draw, transfer, or encumber funds to the extent that the amount is offset by a bond of equal or greater amount that satisfies this subdivision. The bond shall be issued by a surety insurer admitted to do business in this state and shall be filed with the Secretary of State. The bond shall be in favor of the State of California for the benefit of consumers harmed by a violation of this title.

(d) Subdivision (a) does not apply to a seller of health studio services that is, at the time money is received from the consumer, operating at least five health studio facilities in this state that have been in operation for a period of at least five years, and that has an excess of current assets over current liabilities of at least one million dollars ($1,000,000).

1812.98. Nothing in this title is intended to prohibit month-to-month contracts. This section is declaratory of existing law.

1812.700. (a) In addition to the requirements imposed by Article 2 (commencing with Section 1788.10) of Title 1.6C, third-party debt collectors subject to the federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (15 U.S.C. Sec. 1692 et seq.) shall provide a notice to debtors that shall include the following description of debtor rights: "The state Rosenthal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act and the federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act require that, except under unusual circumstances, collectors may not contact you before 8 a.m. or after 9 p.m. They may not harass you by using threats of violence or arrest or by using obscene language. Collectors may not use false or misleading statements or call you at work if they know or have reason to know that you may not receive personal calls at work. For the most part, collectors may not tell another person, other than your attorney or spouse, about your debt. Collectors may contact another person to confirm your location or enforce a judgment. For more information about debt collection activities, you may contact the Federal Trade Commission at 1-877-FTC-HELP or www.ftc.gov."

(b) The notice shall be included with the first written notice initially addressed to a California address of a debtor in connection with collecting the debt by the third-party debt collector.

(c) If a language other than English is principally used by the third-party debt collector in the initial oral contact with the debtor, a notice shall be provided to the debtor in that language within five working days.

1946. A hiring of real property, for a term not specified by the parties, is deemed to be renewed as stated in Section 1945, at the end of the term implied by law unless one of the parties gives written notice to the other of his intention to terminate the same, at least as long before the expiration thereof as the term of the hiring itself, not exceeding 30 days; provided, however, that as to tenancies from month to month either of the parties may terminate the same by giving at least 30 days' written notice thereof at any time and the rent shall be due and payable to and including the date of termination. It shall be competent for the parties to provide by an agreement at the time such tenancy is created that a notice of the intention to terminate the same may be given at any time not less than seven days before the expiration of the term thereof. The notice herein required shall be given in the manner prescribed in Section 1162 of the Code of Civil Procedure or by sending a copy by certified or registered mail addressed to the other party. In addition, the lessee may give such notice by sending a copy by certified or registered mail addressed to the agent of the lessor to whom the lessee has paid the rent for the month prior to the date of such notice or by delivering a copy to the agent personally.

1950.5. (a) This section applies to security for a rental agreement for residential property that is used as the dwelling of the tenant.

(b) As used in this section, "security" means any payment, fee, deposit, or charge, including, but not limited to, any payment, fee, deposit, or charge, except as provided in Section 1950.6, that is imposed at the beginning of the tenancy to be used to reimburse the landlord for costs associated with processing a new tenant or that is imposed as an advance payment of rent, used or to be used for any purpose, including, but not limited to, any of the following:

(1) The compensation of a landlord for a tenant's default in the payment of rent.

(2) The repair of damages to the premises, exclusive of ordinary wear and tear, caused by the tenant or by a guest or licensee of the tenant.

(3) The cleaning of the premises upon termination of the tenancy necessary to return the unit to the same level of cleanliness it was in at the inception of the tenancy. The amendments to this paragraph enacted by the act adding this sentence shall apply only to tenancies for which the tenant's right to occupy begins after January 1, 2003.

(4) To remedy future defaults by the tenant in any obligation under the rental agreement to restore, replace, or return personal property or appurtenances, exclusive of ordinary wear and tear, if the security deposit is authorized to be applied thereto by the rental agreement.

(c) A landlord may not demand or receive security, however denominated, in an amount or value in excess of an amount equal to two months' rent, in the case of unfurnished residential property, and an amount equal to three months' rent, in the case of furnished residential property, in addition to any rent for the first month paid on or before initial occupancy.

This subdivision does not prohibit an advance payment of not less than six months' rent if the term of the lease is six months or longer.

This subdivision does not preclude a landlord and a tenant from entering into a mutual agreement for the landlord, at the request of the tenant and for a specified fee or charge, to make structural, decorative, furnishing, or other similar alterations, if the alterations are other than cleaning or repairing for which the landlord may charge the previous tenant as provided by subdivision (e).

(d) Any security shall be held by the landlord for the tenant who is party to the lease or agreement. The claim of a tenant to the security shall be prior to the claim of any creditor of the landlord.

(e) The landlord may claim of the security only those amounts as are reasonably necessary for the purposes specified in subdivision (b). The landlord may not assert a claim against the tenant or the security for damages to the premises or any defective conditions that preexisted the tenancy, for ordinary wear and tear or the effects thereof, whether the wear and tear preexisted the tenancy or occurred during the tenancy, or for the cumulative effects of ordinary wear and tear occurring during any one or more tenancies.

(f) (1) Within a reasonable time after notification of either party's intention to terminate the tenancy, or before the end of the lease term, the landlord shall notify the tenant in writing of his or her option to request an initial inspection and of his or her right to be present at the inspection. The requirements of this subdivision do not apply when the tenancy is terminated pursuant to subdivision (2), (3), or (4) of Section 1161 of the Code of Civil Procedure. At a reasonable time, but no earlier than two weeks before the termination or the end of lease date, the landlord, or an agent of the landlord, shall, upon the request of the tenant, make an initial inspection of the premises prior to any final inspection the landlord makes after the tenant has vacated the premises. The purpose of the initial inspection shall be to allow the tenant an opportunity to remedy identified deficiencies, in a manner consistent with the rights and obligations of the parties under the rental agreement, in order to avoid deductions from the security. If a tenant chooses not to request an initial inspection, the duties of the landlord under this subdivision are discharged. If an inspection is requested, the parties shall attempt to schedule the inspection at a mutually acceptable date and time. The landlord shall give at least 48 hours' prior written notice of the date and time of the inspection if either a mutual time is agreed upon, or if a mutually agreed time cannot be scheduled but the tenant still wishes an inspection. The tenant and landlord may agree to forgo the 48-hour prior written notice by both signing a written waiver. The landlord shall proceed with the inspection whether the tenant is present or not, unless the tenant previously withdrew his or her request for the inspection. Written notice by the landlord shall contain, in substantially the same form, the following:

“State law permits former tenants to reclaim abandoned personal property left at the former address of the tenant, subject to certain conditions. You may or may not be able to reclaim property without incurring additional costs, depending on the cost of storing the property and the length of time before it is reclaimed. In general, these costs will be lower the sooner you contact your former landlord after being notified that property belonging to you was left behind after you moved out.”

(2) Based on the inspection, the landlord shall give the tenant an itemized statement specifying repairs or cleanings that are proposed to be the basis of any deductions from the security the landlord intends to make pursuant to paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive, of subdivision (b). This statement shall also include the texts of paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive, of subdivision (b). The statement shall be given to the tenant, if the tenant is present for the inspection, or shall be left inside the premises.

(3) The tenant shall have the opportunity during the period following the initial inspection until termination of the tenancy to remedy identified deficiencies, in a manner consistent with the rights and obligations of the parties under the rental agreement, in order to avoid deductions from the security.

(4) Nothing in this subdivision shall prevent a landlord from using the security for deductions itemized in the statement provided for in paragraph (2) that were not cured by the tenant so long as the deductions are for damages authorized by this section.

(5) Nothing in this subdivision shall prevent a landlord from using the security for any purpose specified in paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive, of subdivision (b) that occurs between completion of the initial inspection and termination of the tenancy or was not identified during the initial inspection due to the presence of a tenant's possessions.

(g) (1) No later than 21 calendar days after the tenant has vacated the premises, but not earlier than the time that either the landlord or the tenant provides a notice to terminate the tenancy under Section 1946 or 1946.1, Section 1161 of the Code of Civil Procedure, or not earlier than 60 calendar days prior to the expiration of a fixed-term lease, the landlord shall furnish the tenant, by personal delivery or by first-class mail, postage prepaid, a copy of an itemized statement indicating the basis for, and the amount of, any security received and the disposition of the security and shall return any remaining portion of the security to the tenant. After either the landlord or the tenant provides notice to terminate the tenancy, the landlord and tenant may mutually agree to have the landlord deposit any remaining portion of the security deposit electronically to a bank account or other financial institution designated by the tenant. After either the landlord or the tenant provides notice to terminate the tenancy, the landlord and the tenant may also agree to have the landlord provide a copy of the itemized statement along with the copies required by paragraph (2) to an email account provided by the tenant.

(2) Along with the itemized statement, the landlord shall also include copies of documents showing charges incurred and deducted by the landlord to repair or clean the premises, as follows:

(A) If the landlord or landlord's employee did the work, the itemized statement shall reasonably describe the work performed. The itemized statement shall include the time spent and the reasonable hourly rate charged.

(B) If the landlord or landlord's employee did not do the work, the landlord shall provide the tenant a copy of the bill, invoice, or receipt supplied by the person or entity performing the work. The itemized statement shall provide the tenant with the name, address, and telephone number of the person or entity, if the bill, invoice, or receipt does not include that information.

(C) If a deduction is made for materials or supplies, the landlord shall provide a copy of the bill, invoice, or receipt. If a particular material or supply item is purchased by the landlord on an ongoing basis, the landlord may document the cost of the item by providing a copy of a bill, invoice, receipt, vendor price list, or other vendor document that reasonably documents the cost of the item used in the repair or cleaning of the unit.

(3) If a repair to be done by the landlord or the landlord's employee cannot reasonably be completed within 21 calendar days after the tenant has vacated the premises, or if the documents from a person or entity providing services, materials, or supplies are not in the landlord's possession within 21 calendar days after the tenant has vacated the premises, the landlord may deduct the amount of a good faith estimate of the charges that will be incurred and provide that estimate with the itemized statement. If the reason for the estimate is because the documents from a person or entity providing services, materials, or supplies are not in the landlord's possession, the itemized statement shall include the name, address, and telephone number of the person or entity. Within 14 calendar days of completing the repair or receiving the documentation, the landlord shall complete the requirements in paragraphs (1) and (2) in the manner specified.

(4) The landlord need not comply with paragraph (2) or (3) if either of the following applies:

(A) The deductions for repairs and cleaning together do not exceed one hundred twenty-five dollars ($125).

(B) The tenant waived the rights specified in paragraphs (2) and (3). The waiver shall only be effective if it is signed by the tenant at the same time or after a notice to terminate a tenancy under Section 1946 or 1946.1 has been given, a notice under Section 1161 of the Code of Civil Procedure has been given, or no earlier than 60 calendar days prior to the expiration of a fixed-term lease. The waiver shall substantially include the text of paragraph (2).

(5) Notwithstanding paragraph (4), the landlord shall comply with paragraphs (2) and (3) when a tenant makes a request for documentation within 14 calendar days after receiving the itemized statement specified in paragraph (1). The landlord shall comply within 14 calendar days after receiving the request from the tenant.

(6) Any mailings to the tenant pursuant to this subdivision shall be sent to the address provided by the tenant. If the tenant does not provide an address, mailings pursuant to this subdivision shall be sent to the unit that has been vacated.

(h) Upon termination of the landlord's interest in the premises, whether by sale, assignment, death, appointment of receiver or otherwise, the landlord or the landlord's agent shall, within a reasonable time, do one of the following acts, either of which shall relieve the landlord of further liability with respect to the security held:

(1) Transfer the portion of the security remaining after any lawful deductions made under subdivision (e) to the landlord's successor in interest. The landlord shall thereafter notify the tenant by personal delivery or by first-class mail, postage prepaid, of the transfer, of any claims made against the security, of the amount of the security deposited, and of the names of the successors in interest, their addresses, and their telephone numbers. If the notice to the tenant is made by personal delivery, the tenant shall acknowledge receipt of the notice and sign his or her name on the landlord's copy of the notice.

(2) Return the portion of the security remaining after any lawful deductions made under subdivision (e) to the tenant, together with an accounting as provided in subdivision (g).

(i) Prior to the voluntary transfer of a landlord's interest in the premises, the landlord shall deliver to the landlord's successor in interest a written statement indicating the following:

(1) The security remaining after any lawful deductions are made.

(2) An itemization of any lawful deductions from any security received.

(3) His or her election under paragraph (1) or (2) of subdivision (h).

This subdivision does not affect the validity of title to the real property transferred in violation of this subdivision.

(j) In the event of noncompliance with subdivision (h), the landlord's successors in interest shall be jointly and severally liable with the landlord for repayment of the security, or that portion thereof to which the tenant is entitled, when and as provided in subdivisions (e) and (g). A successor in interest of a landlord may not require the tenant to post any security to replace that amount not transferred to the tenant or successors in interest as provided in subdivision (h), unless and until the successor in interest first makes restitution of the initial security as provided in paragraph (2) of subdivision (h) or provides the tenant with an accounting as provided in subdivision (g).

This subdivision does not preclude a successor in interest from recovering from the tenant compensatory damages that are in excess of the security received from the landlord previously paid by the tenant to the landlord.

Notwithstanding this subdivision, if, upon inquiry and reasonable investigation, a landlord's successor in interest has a good faith belief that the lawfully remaining security deposit is transferred to him or her or returned to the tenant pursuant to subdivision (h), he or she is not liable for damages as provided in subdivision (l), or any security not transferred pursuant to subdivision (h).

(k) Upon receipt of any portion of the security under paragraph (1) of subdivision (h), the landlord's successors in interest shall have all of the rights and obligations of a landlord holding the security with respect to the security.

(l) The bad faith claim or retention by a landlord or the landlord' s successors in interest of the security or any portion thereof in violation of this section, or the bad faith demand of replacement security in violation of subdivision (j), may subject the landlord or the landlord's successors in interest to statutory damages of up to twice the amount of the security, in addition to actual damages. The court may award damages for bad faith whenever the facts warrant that award, regardless of whether the injured party has specifically requested relief. In any action under this section, the landlord or the landlord's successors in interest shall have the burden of proof as to the reasonableness of the amounts claimed or the authority pursuant to this section to demand additional security deposits.

(m) No lease or rental agreement may contain any provision characterizing any security as "nonrefundable."

(n) Any action under this section may be maintained in small claims court if the damages claimed, whether actual or statutory or both, are within the jurisdictional amount allowed by Section 116.220 or 116.221 of the Code of Civil Procedure.

(o) Proof of the existence of and the amount of a security deposit may be established by any credible evidence, including, but not limited to, a canceled check, a receipt, a lease indicating the requirement of a deposit as well as the amount, prior consistent statements or actions of the landlord or tenant, or a statement under penalty of perjury that satisfies the credibility requirements set forth in Section 780 of the Evidence Code.

(p) The amendments to this section made during the 1985 portion of the 1985-86 Regular Session of the Legislature that are set forth in subdivision (e) are declaratory of existing law.

(q) The amendments to this section made during the 2003 portion of the 2003-04 Regular Session of the Legislature that are set forth in paragraph (1) of subdivision (f) are declaratory of existing law.

1950.6. (a) Notwithstanding Section 1950.5, when a landlord or his or her agent receives a request to rent a residential property from an applicant, the landlord or his or her agent may charge that applicant an application screening fee to cover the costs of obtaining information about the applicant. The information requested and obtained by the landlord or his or her agent may include, but is not limited to, personal reference checks and consumer credit reports produced by consumer credit reporting agencies as defined in Section 1785.3. A landlord or his or her agent may, but is not required to, accept and rely upon a consumer credit report presented by an applicant.

(b) The amount of the application screening fee shall not be greater than the actual out-of-pocket costs of gathering information concerning the applicant, including, but not limited to, the cost of using a tenant screening service or a consumer credit reporting service, and the reasonable value of time spent by the landlord or his or her agent in obtaining information on the applicant. In no case shall the amount of the application screening fee charged by the landlord or his or her agent be greater than thirty dollars ($30) per applicant. The thirty dollar ($30) application screening fee may be adjusted annually by the landlord or his or her agent commensurate with an increase in the Consumer Price Index, beginning on January 1, 1998.

(c) Unless the applicant agrees in writing, a landlord or his or her agent may not charge an applicant an application screening fee when he or she knows or should have known that no rental unit is available at that time or will be available within a reasonable period of time.

(d) The landlord or his or her agent shall provide, personally, or by mail, the applicant with a receipt for the fee paid by the applicant, which receipt shall itemize the out-of-pocket expenses and time spent by the landlord or his or her agent to obtain and process the information about the applicant.

(e) If the landlord or his or her agent does not perform a personal reference check or does not obtain a consumer credit report, the landlord or his or her agent shall return any amount of the screening fee that is not used for the purposes authorized by this section to the applicant.

(f) If an application screening fee has been paid by the applicant and if requested by the applicant, the landlord or his or her agent shall provide a copy of the consumer credit report to the applicant who is the subject of that report.

(g) As used in this section, "landlord" means an owner of residential rental property.

(h) As used in this section, "application screening fee" means any nonrefundable payment of money charged by a landlord or his or her agent to an applicant, the purpose of which is to purchase a consumer credit report and to validate, review, or otherwise process an application for the rent or lease of residential rental property.

(i) As used in this section, "applicant" means any entity or individual who makes a request to a landlord or his or her agent to rent a residential housing unit, or an entity or individual who agrees to act as a guarantor or cosignor on a rental agreement.

(j) The application screening fee shall not be considered an "advance fee" as that term is used in Section 10026 of the Business and Professions Code, and shall not be considered "security" as that term is used in Section 1950.5.

(k) This section is not intended to preempt any provisions or regulations that govern the collection of deposits and fees under federal or state housing assistance programs.

2314. A ratification may be rescinded when made without such consent as is required in a contract, or with an imperfect knowledge of the material facts of the transaction ratified, but not otherwise.

2981. As used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) "Conditional sale contract" means:

(1) A contract for the sale of a motor vehicle between a buyer and a seller, with or without accessories, under which possession is delivered to the buyer and either of the following:

(A) The title vests in the buyer thereafter only upon the payment of all or a part of the price, or the performance of any other condition.

(B) A lien on the property is to vest in the seller as security for the payment of part or all of the price, or for the performance of any other condition.

(2) A contract for the bailment of a motor vehicle between a buyer and a seller, with or without accessories, by which the bailee or lessee agrees to pay as compensation for use a sum substantially equivalent to or in excess of the aggregate value of the vehicle and its accessories, if any, at the time the contract is executed, and by which it is agreed that the bailee or lessee will become, or for no other or for a nominal consideration has the option of becoming, the owner of the vehicle upon full compliance with the terms of the contract.

(b) "Seller" means a person engaged in the business of selling or leasing motor vehicles under conditional sale contracts.

(c) "Buyer" means the person who buys or hires a motor vehicle under a conditional sale contract.

(d) "Person" includes an individual, company, firm, association, partnership, trust, corporation, limited liability company, or other legal entity.

(e) "Cash price" means the amount for which the seller would sell and transfer to the buyer unqualified title to the motor vehicle described in the conditional sale contract, if the property were sold for cash at the seller's place of business on the date the contract is executed, and shall include taxes to the extent imposed on the cash sale and the cash price of accessories or services related to the sale, including, but not limited to, delivery, installation, alterations, modifications, improvements, document preparation fees, a service contract, a vehicle contract cancellation option agreement, and payment of a prior credit or lease balance remaining on property being traded in.

(f) "Downpayment" means a payment that the buyer pays or agrees to pay to the seller in cash or property value or money's worth at or prior to delivery by the seller to the buyer of the motor vehicle described in the conditional sale contract. The term shall also include the amount of any portion of the downpayment the payment of which is deferred until not later than the due date of the second otherwise scheduled payment, if the amount of the deferred downpayment is not subject to a finance charge. The term does not include any administrative finance charge charged, received or collected by the seller as provided in this chapter.

(g) "Amount financed" means the amount required to be disclosed pursuant to paragraph (8) of subdivision (a) of Section 2982.

(h) "Unpaid balance" means the difference between subdivision (e) and subdivision (f), plus all insurance premiums (except for credit life or disability insurance when the amount thereof is included in the finance charge), which are included in the contract balance, and the total amount paid or to be paid as follows:

(1) To a public officer in connection with the transaction.

(2) For license, certificate of title, and registration fees imposed by law, and the amount of the state fee for issuance of a certificate of compliance or certificate of waiver pursuant to Section 9889.56 of the Business and Professions Code.

(i) "Finance charge" has the meaning set forth for that term in Section 226.4 of Regulation Z. The term shall not include delinquency charges or collection costs and fees as provided by subdivision (k) of Section 2982, extension or deferral agreement charges as provided by Section 2982.3, or amounts for insurance, repairs to or preservation of the motor vehicle, or preservation of the security interest therein advanced by the holder under the terms of the contract.

(j) "Total of payments" means the amount required to be disclosed pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 226.18 of Regulation Z. The term includes any portion of the downpayment that is deferred until not later than the second otherwise scheduled payment and that is not subject to a finance charge. The term shall not include amounts for which the buyer may later become obligated under the terms of the contract in connection with insurance, repairs to or preservation of the motor vehicle, preservation of the security interest therein, or otherwise.

(k) "Motor vehicle" means a vehicle required to be registered under the Vehicle Code that is bought for use primarily for personal or family purposes, and does not mean any vehicle that is bought for use primarily for business or commercial purposes or a mobilehome, as defined in Section 18008 of the Health and Safety Code that is sold on or after July 1, 1981. "Motor vehicle" does not include any trailer that is sold in conjunction with a vessel and that comes within the definition of "goods" under Section 1802.1.

(l) "Purchase order" means a sales order, car reservation, statement of transaction or any other such instrument used in the conditional sale of a motor vehicle pending execution of a conditional sale contract. The purchase order shall conform to the disclosure requirements of subdivision (a) of Section 2982 and Section 2984.1, and subdivision (m) of Section 2982 shall apply.

(m) "Regulation Z" means a rule, regulation or interpretation promulgated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (" Board") under the federal Truth in Lending Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. 1601, et seq.), and an interpretation or approval issued by an official or employee of the Federal Reserve System duly authorized by the board under the Truth in Lending Act, as amended, to issue the interpretations or approvals.

(n) "Simple-interest basis" means the determination of a finance charge, other than an administrative finance charge, by applying a constant rate to the unpaid balance as it changes from time to time either:

(1) Calculated on the basis of a 365-day year and actual days elapsed (although the seller may, but need not, adjust its calculations to account for leap years); reference in this chapter to the "365-day basis" shall mean this method of determining the finance charge, or

(2) For contracts entered into prior to January 1, 1988, calculated on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of 12 months of 30 days each and on the assumption that all payments will be received by the seller on their respective due dates; reference in this chapter to the "360-day basis" shall mean this method of determining the finance charge.

(o) "Precomputed basis" means the determination of a finance charge by multiplying the original unpaid balance of the contract by a rate and multiplying that product by the number of payment periods elapsing between the date of the contract and the date of the last scheduled payment.

(p) "Service contract" means "vehicle service contract" as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 12800 of the Insurance Code.

(q) "Surface protection product" means the following products installed by the seller after the motor vehicle is sold:

(1) Undercoating.

(2) Rustproofing.

(3) Chemical or film paint sealant or protectant.

(4) Chemical sealant or stain inhibitor for carpet and fabric.

(r) "Theft deterrent device" means the following devices installed by the seller after the motor vehicle is sold:

(1) A vehicle alarm system.

(2) A window etch product.

(3) A body part marking product.

(4) A steering lock.

(5) A pedal or ignition lock.

(6) A fuel or ignition kill switch.

2981.8. No contract shall provide for a finance charge which is determined in part by the precomputed basis and in part by the simple-interest basis except for any finance charge permitted by subdivisions (a) and (c) of Section 2982.8.

2981.9. Every conditional sale contract subject to this chapter shall be in writing and, if printed, shall be printed in type no smaller than 6-point, and shall contain in a single document all of the agreements of the buyer and seller with respect to the total cost and the terms of payment for the motor vehicle, including any promissory notes or any other evidences of indebtedness. The conditional sale contract or a purchase order shall be signed by the buyer or his or her authorized representative and by the seller or its authorized representative. An exact copy of the contract or purchase order shall be furnished to the buyer by the seller at the time the buyer and the seller have signed it. No motor vehicle shall be delivered pursuant to a contract subject to this chapter until the seller delivers to the buyer a fully executed copy of the conditional sale contract or purchase order and any vehicle purchase proposal and any credit statement which the seller has required or requested the buyer to sign and which he or she has signed during the contract negotiations. The seller shall not obtain the signature of the buyer to a contract when it contains blank spaces to be filled in after it has been signed.

2982. A conditional sale contract subject to this chapter shall contain the disclosures required by Regulation Z, whether or not Regulation Z applies to the transaction. In addition, to the extent applicable, the contract shall contain the other disclosures and notices required by, and shall satisfy the requirements and limitations of, this section. The disclosures required by subdivision (a) may be itemized or subtotaled to a greater extent than as required by that subdivision and shall be made together and in the sequence set forth in that subdivision. All other disclosures and notices may appear in the contract in any location or sequence and may be combined or interspersed with other provisions of the contract.

(a) The contract shall contain the following disclosures, as applicable, which shall be labeled "itemization of the amount financed:"

(1) (A) The cash price, exclusive of document preparation fees, business partnership automation fees, taxes imposed on the sale, pollution control certification fees, prior credit or lease balance on property being traded in, the amount charged for a service contract, the amount charged for a theft deterrent system, the amount charged for a surface protection product, the amount charged for an optional debt cancellation agreement, and the amount charged for a contract cancellation option agreement.

(B) The charge to be retained by the seller for document processing authorized pursuant to Section 4456.5 of the Vehicle Code.

(C) The fee charged by the seller for certifying that the motor vehicle complies with applicable pollution control requirements.

(D) A charge for a theft deterrent device.

(E) A charge for a surface protection product.

(F) Taxes imposed on the sale.

(G) The charge to electronically register or transfer the vehicle authorized pursuant to Section 4456.5 of the Vehicle Code.

(H) The amount charged for a service contract.

(I) The prior credit or lease balance remaining on property being traded in, as required by paragraph (6). The disclosure required by this subparagraph shall be labeled "prior credit or lease balance (see downpayment and trade-in calculation)."

(J) Any charge for an optional debt cancellation agreement.

(K) Any charge for a used vehicle contract cancellation option agreement.

(L) The total cash price, which is the sum of subparagraphs (A) to (K), inclusive.

(M) The disclosures described in subparagraphs (D), (E), and (K) are not required on contracts involving the sale of a motorcycle, as defined in Section 400 of the Vehicle Code, or on contracts involving the sale of an off-highway motor vehicle that is subject to identification under Section 38010 of the Vehicle Code, and the amounts of those charges, if any, are not required to be reflected in the total price under subparagraph (L).

(2) Amounts paid to public officials for the following:

(A) Vehicle license fees.

(B) Registration, transfer, and titling fees.

(C) California tire fees imposed pursuant to Section 42885 of the Public Resources Code.

(3) The aggregate amount of premiums agreed, upon execution of the contract, to be paid for policies of insurance included in the contract, excluding the amount of any insurance premium included in the finance charge.

(4) The amount of the state fee for issuance of a certificate of compliance, noncompliance, exemption, or waiver pursuant to any applicable pollution control statute.

(5) A subtotal representing the sum of the amounts described in paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive.

(6) The amount of the buyer's downpayment itemized to show the following:

(A) The agreed value of the property being traded in.

(B) The prior credit or lease balance, if any, owing on the property being traded in.

(C) The net agreed value of the property being traded in, which is the difference between the amounts disclosed in subparagraphs (A) and (B). If the prior credit or lease balance of the property being traded in exceeds the agreed value of the property, a negative number shall be stated.

(D) The amount of any portion of the downpayment to be deferred until not later than the due date of the second regularly scheduled installment under the contract and that is not subject to a finance charge.

(E) The amount of any manufacturer's rebate applied or to be applied to the downpayment.

(F) The remaining amount paid or to be paid by the buyer as a downpayment.

(G) The total downpayment. If the sum of subparagraphs (C) to (F), inclusive, is zero or more, that sum shall be stated as the total downpayment and no amount shall be stated as the prior credit or lease balance under subparagraph (I) of paragraph (1). If the sum of subparagraphs (C) to (F), inclusive, is less than zero, then that sum, expressed as a positive number, shall be stated as the prior credit or lease balance under subparagraph (I) of paragraph (1), and zero shall be stated as the total downpayment. The disclosure required by this subparagraph shall be labeled "total downpayment" and shall contain a descriptor indicating that if the total downpayment is a negative number, a zero shall be disclosed as the total downpayment and a reference made that the remainder shall be included in the disclosure required pursuant to subparagraph (I) of paragraph (1).

(7) The amount of any administrative finance charge, labeled "prepaid finance charge."

(8) The difference between the amount described in paragraph (5) and the sum of amounts described in paragraphs (6) and (7), labeled "amount financed."

(b) No particular terminology is required to disclose the items set forth in subdivision (a) except as expressly provided in that subdivision.

(c) If payment of all or a portion of the downpayment is to be deferred, the deferred payment shall be reflected in the payment schedule disclosed pursuant to Regulation Z.

(d) If the downpayment includes property being traded in, the contract shall contain a brief description of that property.

(e) The contract shall contain the names and addresses of all persons to whom the notice required pursuant to Section 2983.2 and permitted pursuant to Sections 2983.5 and 2984 is to be sent.

(f) (1) If the contract includes a finance charge determined on the precomputed basis, the contract shall identify the method of computing the unearned portion of the finance charge in the event of prepayment in full of the buyer's obligation and contain a statement of the amount or method of computation of any charge that may be deducted from the amount of any unearned finance charge in computing the amount that will be credited to the obligation or refunded to the buyer. The method of computing the unearned portion of the finance charge shall be sufficiently identified with a reference to the actuarial method if the computation will be under that method. The method of computing the unearned portion of the finance charge shall be sufficiently identified with a reference to the Rule of 78's, the sum of the digits, or the sum of the periodic time balances method in all other cases, and those references shall be deemed to be equivalent for disclosure purposes.

(2) If the contract includes a finance charge that is determined on the simple-interest basis but provides for a minimum finance charge in the event of prepayment in full, the contract shall contain a statement of that fact and the amount of the minimum finance charge or its method of calculation.

(g) (1) If the contract includes a finance charge that is determined on the precomputed basis and provides that the unearned portion of the finance charge to be refunded upon full prepayment of the contract is to be determined by a method other than actuarial, the contract shall contain a notice, in at least 10-point boldface type if the contract is printed, reading as follows: "Notice to buyer: (1) Do not sign this agreement before you read it or if it contains any blank spaces to be filled in. (2) You are entitled to a completely filled-in copy of this agreement. (3) You can prepay the full amount due under this agreement at any time and obtain a partial refund of the finance charge if it is $1 or more. Because of the way the amount of this refund will be figured, the time when you prepay could increase the ultimate cost of credit under this agreement. (4) If you default in the performance of your obligations under this agreement, the vehicle may be repossessed and you may be subject to suit and liability for the unpaid indebtedness evidenced by this agreement."

(2) If the contract includes a finance charge that is determined on the precomputed basis and provides for the actuarial method for computing the unearned portion of the finance charge upon prepayment in full, the contract shall contain a notice, in at least 10-point boldface type if the contract is printed, reading as follows: "Notice to buyer: (1) Do not sign this agreement before you read it or if it contains any blank spaces to be filled in. (2) You are entitled to a completely filled-in copy of this agreement. (3) You can prepay the full amount due under this agreement at any time and obtain a partial refund of the finance charge if it is $1 or more. (4) If you default in the performance of your obligations under this agreement, the vehicle may be repossessed and you may be subject to suit and liability for the unpaid indebtedness evidenced by this agreement."

(3) If the contract includes a finance charge that is determined on the simple-interest basis, the contract shall contain a notice, in at least 10-point boldface type if the contract is printed, reading as follows: "Notice to buyer: (1) Do not sign this agreement before you read it or if it contains any blank spaces to be filled in. (2) You are entitled to a completely filled-in copy of this agreement. (3) You can prepay the full amount due under this agreement at any time. (4) If you default in the performance of your obligations under this agreement, the vehicle may be repossessed and you may be subject to suit and liability for the unpaid indebtedness evidenced by this agreement."

(h) The contract shall contain a notice in at least 8-point boldface type, acknowledged by the buyer, that reads as follows:

"If you have a complaint concerning this sale, you should try to resolve it with the seller.

Complaints concerning unfair or deceptive practices or methods by the seller may be referred to the city attorney, the district attorney, or an investigator for the Department of Motor Vehicles, or any combination thereof.

After this contract is signed, the seller may not change the financing or payment terms unless you agree in writing to the change. You do not have to agree to any change, and it is an unfair or deceptive practice for the seller to make a unilateral change.

____________________
Buyer's Signature

(i) (1) The contract shall contain an itemization of any insurance included as part of the amount financed disclosed pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) and of any insurance included as part of the finance charge. The itemization shall identify the type of insurance coverage and the premium charged therefor, and, if the insurance expires before the date of the last scheduled installment included in the repayment schedule, the term of the insurance shall be stated.

(2) If any charge for insurance, other than for credit life or disability, is included in the contract balance and disbursement of any part thereof is to be made more than one year after the date of the conditional sale contract, any finance charge on the amount to be disbursed after one year shall be computed from the month the disbursement is to be made to the due date of the last installment under the conditional sale contract.

(j) (1) Except for contracts in which the finance charge or portion of the finance charge is determined by the simple-interest basis and the amount financed disclosed pursuant to paragraph (8) of subdivision (a) is more than two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500), the dollar amount of the disclosed finance charge may not exceed the greater of:

(A) (i) One and one-half percent on so much of the unpaid balance as does not exceed two hundred twenty-five dollars ($225), 11/6 percent on so much of the unpaid balance in excess of two hundred twenty-five dollars ($225) as does not exceed nine hundred dollars ($900) and five-sixths of 1 percent on so much of the unpaid balance in excess of nine hundred dollars ($900) as does not exceed two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500).

(ii) One percent of the entire unpaid balance; multiplied in either case by the number of months (computed on the basis of a full month for any fractional month period in excess of 15 days) elapsing between the date of the contract and the due date of the last installment.

(B) If the finance charge is determined by the precomputed basis, twenty-five dollars ($25).

(C) If the finance charge or a portion thereof is determined by the simple-interest basis:

(i) Twenty-five dollars ($25) if the unpaid balance does not exceed one thousand dollars ($1,000).

(ii) Fifty dollars ($50) if the unpaid balance exceeds one thousand dollars ($1,000) but does not exceed two thousand dollars ($2,000).

(iii) Seventy-five dollars ($75) if the unpaid balance exceeds two thousand dollars ($2,000).

(2) The holder of the contract may not charge, collect, or receive a finance charge that exceeds the disclosed finance charge, except to the extent (A) caused by the holder's receipt of one or more payments under a contract that provides for determination of the finance charge or a portion thereof on the 365-day basis at a time or times other than as originally scheduled whether or not the parties enter into an agreement pursuant to Section 2982.3, (B) permitted by paragraph (2), (3), or (4) of subdivision (c) of Section 226.17 of Regulation Z, or (C) permitted by subdivisions (a) and (c) of Section 2982.8.

(3) If the finance charge or a portion thereof is determined by the simple-interest basis and the amount of the unpaid balance exceeds five thousand dollars ($5,000), the holder of the contract may, in lieu of its right to a minimum finance charge under subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1), charge, receive, or collect on the date of the contract an administrative finance charge not to exceed seventy-five dollars ($75), provided that the sum of the administrative finance charge and the portion of the finance charge determined by the simple-interest basis shall not exceed the maximum total finance charge permitted by subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1). Any administrative finance charge that is charged, received, or collected by a holder shall be deemed a finance charge earned on the date of the contract.

(4) If a contract provides for unequal or irregular payments, or payments on other than a monthly basis, the maximum finance charge shall be at the effective rate provided for in paragraph (1), having due regard for the schedule of installments.

(k) The contract may provide that for each installment in default for a period of not less than 10 days the buyer shall pay a delinquency charge in an amount not to exceed in the aggregate 5 percent of the delinquent installment, which amount may be collected only once on any installment regardless of the period during which it remains in default. Payments timely received by the seller under an extension or deferral agreement may not be subject to a delinquency charge unless the charge is permitted by Section 2982.3. The contract may provide for reasonable collection costs and fees in the event of delinquency.

(l) Notwithstanding any provision of a contract to the contrary, the buyer may pay at any time before maturity the entire indebtedness evidenced by the contract without penalty. In the event of prepayment in full:

(1) If the finance charge was determined on the precomputed basis, the amount required to prepay the contract shall be the outstanding contract balance as of that date, provided, however, that the buyer shall be entitled to a refund credit in the amount of the unearned portion of the finance charge, except as provided in paragraphs (3) and (4). The amount of the unearned portion of the finance charge shall be at least as great a proportion of the finance charge, including any additional finance charge imposed pursuant to Section 2982.8 or other additional charge imposed because the contract has been extended, deferred, or refinanced, as the sum of the periodic monthly time balances payable more than 15 days after the date of prepayment bears to the sum of all the periodic monthly time balances under the schedule of installments in the contract or, if the contract has been extended, deferred, or refinanced, as so extended, deferred, or refinanced. If the amount of the refund credit is less than one dollar ($1), no refund credit need be made by the holder. Any refund credit may be made in cash or credited to the outstanding obligations of the buyer under the contract.

(2) If the finance charge or a portion of the finance charge was determined on the simple-interest basis, the amount required to prepay the contract shall be the outstanding contract balance as of that date, including any earned finance charges that are unpaid as of that date and, if applicable, the amount provided in paragraph (3), and provided further that in cases where a finance charge is determined on the 360-day basis, the payments received under the contract shall be assumed to have been received on their respective due dates regardless of the actual dates on which the payments were received.

(3) If the minimum finance charge provided by subparagraph (B) or subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (j), if either is applicable, is greater than the earned finance charge as of the date of prepayment, the holder shall be additionally entitled to the difference.

(4) This subdivision shall not impair the right of the seller or the seller's assignee to receive delinquency charges on delinquent installments and reasonable costs and fees as provided in subdivision (k) or extension or deferral agreement charges as provided in Section 2982.3.

(5) Notwithstanding any provision of a contract to the contrary, if the indebtedness created by any contract is satisfied prior to its maturity through surrender of the motor vehicle, repossession of the motor vehicle, redemption of the motor vehicle after repossession, or any judgment, the outstanding obligation of the buyer shall be determined as provided in paragraph (1) or (2). The buyer's outstanding obligation shall be computed by the holder as of the date the holder recovers the value of the motor vehicle through disposition thereof or judgment is entered or, if the holder elects to keep the motor vehicle in satisfaction of the buyer's indebtedness, as of the date the holder takes possession of the motor vehicle.

(m) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter to the contrary, any information required to be disclosed in a conditional sale contract under this chapter may be disclosed in any manner, method, or terminology required or permitted under Regulation Z, as in effect at the time that disclosure is made, except that permitted by paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of Section 226.18 of Regulation Z, if all of the requirements and limitations set forth in subdivision (a) are satisfied. This chapter does not prohibit the disclosure in that contract of additional information required or permitted under Regulation Z, as in effect at the time that disclosure is made.

(n) If the seller imposes a fee for document preparation, the contract shall contain a disclosure that the fee is not a governmental fee.

(o) A seller shall not impose an application fee for a transaction governed by this chapter.

(p) The seller or holder may charge and collect a fee not to exceed fifteen dollars ($15) for the return by a depository institution of a dishonored check, negotiated order of withdrawal, or share draft issued in connection with the contract, if the contract so provides or if the contract contains a generalized statement that the buyer may be liable for collection costs incurred in connection with the contract.

(q) The contract shall disclose on its face, by printing the word "new" or "used" within a box outlined in red, that is not smaller than one-half inch high and one-half inch wide, whether the vehicle is sold as a new vehicle, as defined in Section 430 of the Vehicle Code, or as a used vehicle, as defined in Section 665 of the Vehicle Code.

(r) The contract shall contain a notice with a heading in at least 12-point bold type and the text in at least 10-point bold type, circumscribed by a line, immediately above the contract signature line, that reads as follows:

THERE IS NO COOLING-OFF PERIOD UNLESS YOU OBTAIN A CONTRACT CANCELLATION OPTION.

California law does not provide for a "cooling-off" or other cancellation period for vehicle sales. Therefore, you cannot later cancel this contract simply because you change your mind, decide the vehicle costs too much, or wish you had acquired a different vehicle. After you sign below, you may only cancel this contract with the agreement of the seller or for legal cause, such as fraud.
However, California law does require a seller to offer a two-day contract cancellation option on used vehicles with a purchase price of less than forty thousand dollars ($40,000), subject to certain statutory conditions. This contract cancellation option requirement does not apply to the sale of a recreational vehicle, a motorcycle, or an off-highway motor vehicle subject to identification under California law. See the vehicle contract cancellation option agreement for details.

(s) This section shall become inoperative on July 1, 2013, and, as of January 1, 2014, is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that becomes operative on or before January 1, 2014, deletes or extends the dates on which it becomes inoperative and is repealed.

2982.1. It shall be unlawful for any seller to induce or attempt to induce any person to enter into a contract subject to this chapter by offering a rebate, discount, commission, or other consideration, contingent upon the happening of a future event, on the condition that the buyer either sells, or gives information or assistance for the purpose of leading to a sale by the seller of, the same or related goods.

2982.2. (a) Prior to the execution of a conditional sale contract, the seller shall provide to a buyer, and obtain the buyer's signature on, a written disclosure that sets forth the following information:

(1) (A) A description and the price of each item sold if the contract includes a charge for the item.

(B) Subparagraph (A) applies to each item in the following categories:

(i) A service contract.

(ii) An insurance product.

(iii) A debt cancellation agreement.

(iv) A theft deterrent device.

(v) A surface protection product.

(vi) A vehicle contract cancellation option agreement.

(2) The sum of all of the charges disclosed under subdivision (a), labeled "total."

(3) The amount that would be calculated under the contract as the regular installment payment if charges for the items disclosed pursuant to subdivision (a) are not included in the contract. The amount disclosed pursuant to this subdivision shall be labeled "Installment Payment EXCLUDING Listed Items."

(4) The amount that would be calculated under the contract as the regular installment payment if charges for the items disclosed under subdivision (a) are included in the contract. The amount disclosed pursuant to this subdivision shall be labeled "Installment Payment INCLUDING Listed Items."

(b) The disclosures required under this section shall be in at least 10-point type and shall be contained in a document that is separate from the conditional sale contract and a purchase order.

(c) This section does not apply to the sale of a motorcycle as defined in Section 400 of the Vehicle Code or an off-highway vehicle subject to identification under Section 38010 of the Vehicle Code.

2982.3. (a) The holder of a conditional sale contract may, upon agreement with the buyer, extend the scheduled due date or defer the scheduled payment of all or of any part of any installment or installments payable thereunder. No charge shall be made for any such extension or deferment unless the agreement for such extension or deferment is in writing and signed by the parties thereto. However, the seller or holder may, as an adjunct to or to assist in efforts to collect one or more delinquent installments on the contract, advise one or more obligors on the contract, either in writing or orally, that the due date for one or more installments under the contract shall be extended, with no charge being made for such extension other than any applicable late charge provided for in the contract.

(b) Where the contract includes a finance charge determined on the precomputed basis, the holder may charge and contract for the payment of an extension or deferral agreement charge by the buyer and collect and receive the same, but such charge may not exceed an amount equal to 1 percent per month simple interest on the amount of the installment or installments, or part thereof, extended or deferred for the period of extension or deferral. Such period shall not exceed the period from the date when such extended or deferred installment or installments, or part thereof, would have been payable in the absence of such extension or deferral to the date when such installment or installments, or part thereof, are made payable under the agreement of extension or deferment; except that a minimum charge of one dollar ($1) for the period of extension or deferral may be made in any case where the extension or deferral agreement charge, when computed at such rate, amounts to less than one dollar ($1).

(c) Where the contract includes a finance charge determined on the simple-interest basis, the holder may charge and contract for the payment of an extension or deferral agreement charge by the buyer and collect and receive the same, but the charge for the extension or deferral agreement may not exceed the lesser of twenty-five dollars ($25) or 10 percent of the then outstanding principal balance of the contract. Such charge shall be in addition to any finance charges which accrue because such extended or deferred payments are received at a time other than as originally scheduled.

2982.5. (a) This chapter may not be deemed to affect a loan, or the security therefor, between a purchaser of a motor vehicle and a supervised financial organization, other than the seller of the motor vehicle, all or a portion of which loan is used in connection with the purchase of a motor vehicle. As used in this chapter, "supervised financial organization" means a person organized, chartered, or holding a license or authorization certificate under a law of this state or the United States to make loans and subject to supervision by an official or agency of this state or the United States.

(b) This chapter may not be deemed to prohibit the seller's assisting the buyer in obtaining a loan upon any security from any third party to be used as a part or all of the downpayment or any other payment on a conditional sale contract or purchase order; provided that the conditional sale contract sets forth on its face the amount of the loan, the finance charge, the total thereof, the number of installments scheduled to repay the loan and the amount of each installment, that the buyer may be required to pledge security for the loan, which security shall be mutually agreed to by the buyer and the lender and notice to the buyer in at least 8-point type that he or she is obligated for the installment payments on both the conditional sale contract and the loan. The seller may not provide any security or other guarantee of payment on the loan, nor shall the seller receive any commission or other remuneration for assisting the buyer to obtain the loan. If the buyer obligates himself or herself to purchase, or receives possession of, the motor vehicle prior to securing the loan, and if the buyer upon appropriate application for the loan is unable to secure the loan, on the conditions stated in the conditional sale contract, the conditional sale contract or purchase order shall be deemed rescinded and all consideration thereupon shall be returned by the respective parties without demand.

(c) The proceeds of any loan payable to the seller after the date of the contract but prior to the due date of the second payment otherwise scheduled thereunder may not be subject to a finance charge and the amount thereof shall be disclosed pursuant to subparagraph

(D) of paragraph (6) of subdivision (a) of Section 2982.

(d) This chapter may not be deemed to prohibit the seller's assisting the buyer in obtaining a loan from any third party to be used to pay for the full purchase price, or any part thereof, of a motor vehicle, if each of the following provisions applies:

(1) The loan may be upon any security, but except as provided in paragraph (2), the loan may not be secured in whole or in part by a lien on real property. Any lien on real property taken in violation of this section shall be void and unenforceable.

(2) A lien on real property may be taken to secure a loan of seven thousand five hundred dollars ($7,500) or more used to pay the full purchase price, or any part thereof, of a recreational vehicle, as defined in Section 18010 of the Health and Safety Code, which is not less than 20 feet in length.

(3) The provisions of Sections 2983.2, 2983.3, and 2984.4 shall apply to the loan, but may not authorize the lender or the lender's successor in interest to charge for any costs, fees, or expenses or to obtain any other benefit which the lender is prohibited from charging or obtaining under any regulatory law applicable to the lender. Notwithstanding this paragraph, the provisions of Sections 2983.2 and 2983.3 may not apply to a loan made by a lender licensed under Division 9 (commencing with Section 22000) or Division 10 (commencing with Section 24000) of the Financial Code.

(4) The lender or the lender's successor in interest shall be subject to all claims and defenses which the buyer could assert against the seller, but liability may not exceed the amount of the loan.

(5) If the buyer becomes obligated to purchase, or receives possession of, the motor vehicle prior to obtaining the loan, the agreement between the buyer and the seller shall set forth on its face the amount of the loan, the finance charge, the total thereof, the number of installments scheduled to repay the loan and the amount of each installment, that the buyer may be required to pledge security for the loan, which security must be mutually agreed to by the buyer and the lender, and notice to the buyer in at least 8-point type that the buyer is obligated for the installment payments on the loan and for any payments which may be due on the agreement between the buyer and the seller. The seller may not provide any security or other guarantee of payment on the loan, and the seller may not receive any commission or other remuneration for assisting the buyer to obtain the loan. If the buyer upon proper application for the loan is unable to obtain the loan, on the condition stated in the agreement between the buyer and the seller, the agreement shall be deemed rescinded and all consideration thereupon shall be returned by the respective parties without demand.

(6) Any waiver by the buyer of the provisions of this section shall be void and unenforceable. This subdivision does not apply to state or federally chartered banks and savings and loan associations and may not be construed to affect existing law regarding a seller's assisting a buyer to obtain a loan from a bank or savings and loan association or any loan obtained by the buyer from those lenders.

2982.7. (a) Any payment made by a buyer to a seller pending execution of a conditional sale contract shall be refunded to the buyer in the event the conditional sale contract is not executed.

(b) In the event of breach by the seller of a conditional sale contract or purchase order where the buyer leaves his motor vehicle with the seller as downpayment and such motor vehicle is not returned by the seller to the buyer for whatever reason, the buyer may recover from the seller either the fair market value of the motor vehicle left as a downpayment or its value as stated in the contract or purchase order, whichever is greater. The recovery shall be tendered to the buyer within five business days after the breach.

(c) The remedies of the buyer provided for in subdivision (b) are nonexclusive and cumulative and shall not preclude the buyer from pursuing any other remedy which he may have under any other provision of law.

2982.8. (a) If a buyer is obligated under the terms of the conditional sale contract to maintain insurance on the vehicle and subsequent to the execution of the contract the buyer either fails to maintain or requests the holder to procure the insurance, any amounts advanced by the holder to procure the insurance may be the subject of finance charges from the date of advance as provided in subdivision (e).

(b) These amounts shall be secured as provided in the contract and permitted by Section 2984.2 if the holder notifies the buyer in writing of his or her option to repay those amounts in any one of the following ways:

(1) Full payment within 10 days from the date of giving or mailing the notice.

(2) Full amortization during the term of the insurance.

(3) If offered by the holder, full amortization after the term of the conditional sale contract, to be payable in installments which do not exceed the average payment allocable to a monthly period under the contract.

(4) If offered by the holder, a combination of the methods described in paragraphs (2) and (3), so that there is some amortization during the term of the insurance, with the remainder of the amortization being accomplished after the term of the conditional sale contract, to be payable in installments which do not exceed the average payment allocable to a monthly period under the original terms of the contract.

(5) If offered by the holder, any other amortization plan.

If the buyer neither pays in full the amounts advanced nor notifies the holder in writing of his or her choice regarding amortization options before the expiration of 10 days from the date of giving or mailing the notice by the holder, the holder may amortize the amounts advanced on a secured basis pursuant to paragraph (2) or, if offered by the holder as an option to the buyer, paragraph (3) or (4).

(c) The written notification described in subdivision (b) shall also set forth the amounts advanced by the holder and, with respect to each amortization plan the amount of the additional finance charge, the sum of the amounts advanced and the additional finance charge, the number of installments required, the amount of each installment and the date for payment of the installments.

In addition, the notice shall contain a statement in contrasting red print in at least 8-point bold type, which reads as follows:

"WARNING—IT IS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY UNDER CALIFORNIA LAW TO OBTAIN LIABILITY INSURANCE OR BE SUBJECT TO PENALTIES FOR VIOLATING SECTION 16020 OF THE VEHICLE CODE, WHICH MAY INCLUDE LOSS OF LICENSE OR A FINE. THE INSURANCE ACQUIRED BY THE LIENHOLDER DOES NOT PROVIDE LIABILITY COVERAGE AND DOES NOT SATISFY YOUR RESPONSIBILITY UNDER CALIFORNIA LAW."

(d) If subsequent to the execution of the contract the holder advances amounts for repairs to or preservation of the motor vehicle or preservation of the holder's security interest therein and such advances are occasioned by the buyer's default under the contract, such advances may be the subject of finance charges from the date of advance as provided in subdivision

(e) and shall be secured as provided in the contract and permitted by Section 2984.2. (e) The maximum rate of finance charge which may be imposed on amounts advanced by the holder subsequent to the execution of the contract for insurance, repairs to or preservation of the motor vehicle, or preservation of the holder's security interest therein, shall not exceed the annual percentage rate disclosed pursuant to Section 2982.

2982.9. In the event a buyer obligates himself to purchase, or receive possession of, a motor vehicle pursuant to a contract or purchase order, and the seller knows that the buyer intends to obtain financing from a third party without the assistance of the seller, and the buyer is unable to obtain such financing, the contract or purchase order shall be deemed rescinded and all consideration thereupon shall be returned by the respective parties without demand.

2982.11.  (a) Prior to the execution of a conditional sale contract that includes a charge for an electric vehicle charging station, the seller shall provide the buyer with, and obtain the buyer's signature on, a written disclosure that includes a description and price of each of the following:

(1) The electric vehicle charging station device.

(2) Any materials and wiring.

(3) Any installation services included in the total charge.

(b) The disclosures required under this section shall be in at least 12-point type and shall be contained in a document that is separate from the conditional sale contract or purchase order.

(c) This section shall become operative July 1, 2013.

2983.(a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), if the seller, except as the result of an accidental or bona fide error in computation, violates any provision of Section 2981.9, or of subdivision (a), (j), or (k) of Section 2982, the conditional sale contract shall not be enforceable, except by a bona fide purchaser, assignee or pledgee for value, or until after the violation is corrected as provided in Section 2984, and, if the violation is not corrected, the buyer may recover from the seller the total amount paid, pursuant to the terms of the contract, by the buyer to the seller or his or her assignee. The amount recoverable for property traded in as all or part of the downpayment shall be equal to the agreed cash value of the property as the value appears on the conditional sale contract or the fair market value of the property as of the time the contract is made, whichever is greater.

(b) A conditional sale contract executed or entered into on or after January 1, 2012, shall not be made unenforceable solely because of a violation by the seller of paragraph (2) or (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 2982. In addition to any other remedies that may be available, the buyer is entitled to any actual damages sustained as a result of a violation of those provisions. Nothing in this subdivision affects any legal rights, claims, or remedies otherwise available under law.

2983.1. (a) If the seller or holder of a conditional sale contract, except as the result of an accidental or bona fide error of computation, violates any provision of subdivision (l) of Section 2982, the buyer may recover from the person three times the amount of any finance charge paid to that person.

(b) Except as provided in subdivision (e), if a holder acquires a conditional sale contract without actual knowledge of the violation by the seller of Section 2981.9, or of subdivision (a), (j), or (k) of Section 2982, the contract shall be valid and enforceable by the holder except the buyer is excused from payment of the unpaid finance charge, unless the violation is corrected as provided in Section 2984.

(c) Except as provided in subdivision (e), if a holder acquires a conditional sale contract with knowledge of a violation of Section 2981.9, or of subdivision (a), (j), or (k) of Section 2982, the conditional sale contract shall not be enforceable except by a bona fide purchaser, assignee, or pledgee for value, or unless the violation is corrected as provided in Section 2984, and, if the violation is not corrected, the buyer may recover the amounts specified in Section 2983 from the person to whom payment was made.

(d) When a conditional sale contract is not enforceable under Section 2983 or this section, the buyer may elect to retain the motor vehicle and continue the contract in force, or may, with reasonable diligence, elect to rescind the contract and return the motor vehicle. The value of the motor vehicle returned shall be credited as restitution by the buyer without any decrease that results from the passage of time in the cash price of the motor vehicle as the price appears on the conditional sale contract.

(e) A conditional sale contract executed or entered into on or after January 1, 2012, shall not be made unenforceable, and the buyer shall not be excused from payment of any finance charge, solely because of a violation by the seller of paragraph (2) or (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 2982. In addition to any other remedies that may be available, the buyer is entitled to any actual damages sustained as a result of a violation of those provisions. Nothing in this subdivision affects any legal rights, claims, or remedies otherwise available under law.

2983.2. (a) Except where the motor vehicle has been seized as described in paragraph (6) of subdivision (b) of Section 2983.3, any provision in any conditional sale contract for the sale of a motor vehicle to the contrary notwithstanding, at least 15 days' written notice of intent to dispose of a repossessed or surrendered motor vehicle shall be given to all persons liable on the contract. The notice shall be personally served or shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, or first-class mail, postage prepaid, directed to the last known address of the persons liable on the contract. If those persons are married to each other, and, according to the most recent records of the seller or holder of the contract, reside at the same address, one notice addressed to both persons at that address is sufficient. Except as otherwise provided in Section 2983.8, those persons shall be liable for any deficiency after disposition of the repossessed or surrendered motor vehicle only if the notice prescribed by this section is given within 60 days of repossession or surrender and does all of the following:

(1) Sets forth that those persons shall have a right to redeem the motor vehicle by paying in full the indebtedness evidenced by the contract until the expiration of 15 days from the date of giving or mailing the notice and provides an itemization of the contract balance and of any delinquency, collection or repossession costs and fees and sets forth the computation or estimate of the amount of any credit for unearned finance charges or canceled insurance as of the date of the notice.

(2) States either that there is a conditional right to reinstate the contract until the expiration of 15 days from the date of giving or mailing the notice and all the conditions precedent thereto or that there is no right of reinstatement and provides a statement of reasons therefor.

(3) States that, upon written request, the seller or holder shall extend for an additional 10 days the redemption period or, if entitled to the conditional right of reinstatement, both the redemption and reinstatement periods. The seller or holder shall provide the proper form for applying for the extensions with the substance of the form being limited to the extension request, spaces for the requesting party to sign and date the form, and instructions that it must be personally served or sent by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, to a person or office and address designated by the seller or holder and received before the expiration of the initial redemption and reinstatement periods.

(4) Discloses the place at which the motor vehicle will be returned to those persons upon redemption or reinstatement.

(5) Designates the name and address of the person or office to whom payment shall be made.

(6) States the seller's or holder's intent to dispose of the motor vehicle upon the expiration of 15 days from the date of giving or mailing the notice, or if by mail and either the place of deposit in the mail or the place of address is outside of this state, the period shall be 20 days instead of 15 days, and further, that upon written request to extend the redemption period and any applicable reinstatement period for 10 days, the seller or holder shall without further notice extend the period accordingly.

(7) Informs those persons that upon written request, the seller or holder will furnish a written accounting regarding the disposition of the motor vehicle as provided for in subdivision (b). The seller or holder shall advise them that this request must be personally served or sent first-class mail, postage prepaid, or certified mail, return receipt requested, to a person or office and address designated by the seller or holder.

(8) Includes notice, in at least 10-point bold type if the notice is printed, reading as follows:

"NOTICE. YOU MAY BE SUBJECT TO SUIT AND LIABILITY IF THE AMOUNT OBTAINED UPON DISPOSITION OF THE VEHICLE IS INSUFFICIENT TO PAY THE CONTRACT BALANCE AND ANY OTHER AMOUNTS DUE."

(9) Informs those persons that upon the disposition of the motor vehicle, they will be liable for the deficiency balance plus interest at the contract rate, or at the legal rate of interest pursuant to Section 3289 if there is no contract rate of interest, from the date of disposition of the motor vehicle to the date of entry of judgment.

The notice prescribed by this section shall not affect the discretion of the court to strike out an unconscionable interest rate in the contract for which the notice is required, nor affect the court in its determination of whether the rate is unconscionable.

(b) Unless automatically provided to the buyer within 45 days after the disposition of the motor vehicle, the seller or holder shall provide to any person liable on the contract within 45 days after their written request, if the request is made within one year after the disposition, a written accounting regarding the disposition. The accounting shall itemize:

(1) The gross proceeds of the disposition.

(2) The reasonable and necessary expenses incurred for retaking, holding, preparing for and conducting the sale and to the extent provided for in the agreement and not prohibited by law, reasonable attorney fees and legal expenses incurred by the seller or holder in retaking the motor vehicle from any person not a party to the contract.

(3) The satisfaction of indebtedness secured by any subordinate lien or encumbrance on the motor vehicle if written notification of demand therefor is received before distribution of the proceeds is completed. If requested by the seller or holder, the holder of a subordinate lien or encumbrance must seasonably furnish reasonable proof of its interest, and unless it does so, the seller or holder need not comply with its demand.

(c) In all sales which result in a surplus, the seller or holder shall furnish an accounting as provided in subdivision (b) whether or not requested by the buyer. Any surplus shall be returned to the buyer within 45 days after the sale is conducted.

(d) This section shall not apply to a loan made by a lender licensed under Division 9 (commencing with Section 22000) or Division 10 (commencing with Section 24000) of the Financial Code.

2983.3. (a) In the absence of default in the performance of any of the buyer's obligations under the contract, the seller or holder may not accelerate the maturity of any part or all of the amount due thereunder or repossess the motor vehicle.

(b) If after default by the buyer, the seller or holder repossesses or voluntarily accepts surrender of the motor vehicle, any person liable on the contract shall have a right to reinstate the contract and the seller or holder shall not accelerate the maturity of any part or all of the contract prior to expiration of the right to reinstate, unless the seller or holder reasonably and in good faith determines that any of the following has occurred:

(1) The buyer or any other person liable on the contract by omission or commission intentionally provided false or misleading information of material importance on his or her credit application.

(2) The buyer, any other person liable on the contract, or any permissive user in possession of the motor vehicle, in order to avoid repossession has concealed the motor vehicle or removed it from the state.

(3) The buyer, any other person liable on the contract, or any permissive user in possession of the motor vehicle, has committed or threatens to commit acts of destruction, or has failed to take care of the motor vehicle in a reasonable manner, so that the motor vehicle has become substantially impaired in value, or the buyer, any other person liable on the contract, or any nonoccasional permissive user in possession of the motor vehicle has failed to take care of the motor vehicle in a reasonable manner, so that the motor vehicle may become substantially impaired in value.

(4) The buyer or any other person liable on the contract has committed, attempted to commit, or threatened to commit criminal acts of violence or bodily harm against an agent, employee, or officer of the seller or holder in connection with the seller's or holder's repossession of or attempt to repossess the motor vehicle.

(5) The buyer has knowingly used the motor vehicle, or has knowingly permitted it to be used, in connection with the commission of a criminal offense, other than an infraction, as a consequence of which the motor vehicle has been seized by a federal, state, or local agency or authority pursuant to federal, state, or local law.

(6) The motor vehicle has been seized by a federal, state, or local public agency or authority pursuant to (A) Section 1324 of Title 8 of the United States Code or Part 274 of Title 8 of the Code of Federal Regulations, (B) Section 881 of Title 21 of the United States Code or Part 9 of Title 28 of the Code of Federal Regulations, or (C) other federal, state, or local law, including regulations, and, pursuant to that other law, the seizing authority, as a precondition to the return of the motor vehicle to the seller or holder, prohibits the return of the motor vehicle to the buyer or other person liable on the contract or any third person claiming the motor vehicle by or through them or otherwise effects or requires the termination of the property rights in the motor vehicle of the buyer or other person liable on the contract or claimants by or through them.

(c) Exercise of the right to reinstate the contract shall be limited to once in any 12-month period and twice during the term of the contract.

(d) The provisions of this subdivision cover the method by which a contract shall be reinstated with respect to curing events of default which were a ground for repossession or occurred subsequent to repossession:

(1) Where the default is the result of the buyer's failure to make any payment due under the contract, the buyer or any other person liable on the contract shall make the defaulted payments and pay any applicable delinquency charges.

(2) Where the default is the result of the buyer's failure to keep and maintain the motor vehicle free from all encumbrances and liens of every kind, the buyer or any other person liable on the contract shall either satisfy all encumbrances and liens or, in the event the seller or holder satisfies the encumbrances and liens, the buyer or any other person liable on the contract shall reimburse the seller or holder for all reasonable costs and expenses incurred therefor.

(3) Where the default is the result of the buyer's failure to keep and maintain insurance on the motor vehicle, the buyer or any other person liable on the contract shall either obtain the insurance or, in the event the seller or holder has obtained the insurance, the buyer or any other person liable on the contract shall reimburse the seller or holder for premiums paid and all reasonable costs and expenses, including, but not limited to, any finance charge in connection with the premiums permitted by Section 2982.8, incurred therefor.

(4) Where the default is the result of the buyer's failure to perform any other obligation under the contract, unless the seller or holder has made a good faith determination that the default is so substantial as to be incurable, the buyer or any other person liable on the contract shall either cure the default or, if the seller or holder has performed the obligation, reimburse the seller or holder for all reasonable costs and expenses incurred in connection therewith.

(5) Additionally, the buyer or any other person liable on the contract shall, in all cases, reimburse the seller or holder for all reasonable and necessary collection and repossession costs and fees incurred, including attorney's fees and legal expenses expended in retaking and holding the vehicle.

(e) If the seller or holder denies the right to reinstatement under subdivision (b) or paragraph (4) of subdivision (d), the seller or holder shall have the burden of proof that the denial was justified in that it was reasonable and made in good faith. If the seller or holder fails to sustain the burden of proof, the seller or holder shall not be entitled to a deficiency, but it shall not be presumed that the buyer is entitled to damages by reason of the failure of the seller or holder to sustain the burden of proof.

(f) This section shall not apply to a loan made by a lender licensed under Division 9 (commencing with Section 22000) or Division 10 (commencing with Section 24000) of the Financial Code.

2983.7. No conditional sale contract shall contain any provision by which:

(a) The buyer agrees not to assert against the seller a claim or defense arising out of the sale or agrees not to assert against an assignee such a claim or defense.

(b) A power of attorney is given to confess judgment in this state, or an assignment of wages is given; provided, that nothing herein contained shall prohibit the giving of an assignment of wages contained in a separate instrument pursuant to Section 300 of the Labor Code.

(c) The buyer waives any right of action against the seller or holder of the contract or other person acting on his behalf, for any illegal act committed in the collection of payments under the contract or in the repossession of the motor vehicle.

(d) The buyer executes a power of attorney appointing the seller or holder of the contract, or other person acting on his behalf, as the buyer's agent in the collection of payments under the contract or in the repossession of the motor vehicle.

(e) The buyer relieves the seller from liability for any legal remedies which the buyer may have against the seller under the contract or any separate instrument executed in connection therewith.

(f) The seller or holder of the contract is given the right to commence action on a contract under the provisions of this chapter in a county other than the county in which the contract was in fact signed by the buyer, the county in which the buyer resides at the commencement of the action, the county in which the buyer resided at the time the contract was entered into, or in the county in which the motor vehicle purchased pursuant to such contract is permanently garaged.

2983.8. Notwithstanding Section 2983.2 or any other provision of law, no deficiency judgment shall lie in any event in any of the following instances:

(a) After any sale of any mobilehome for which a permit is required pursuant to Section 35780 or 35790 of the Vehicle Code for failure of the purchaser to complete his or her conditional sale contract given to the seller to secure payment of the balance of the purchase price of such mobilehome. The provisions of this subdivision shall not apply in the event there is substantial damage to the mobilehome other than wear and tear from normal usage. This subdivision shall apply only to contracts entered into on or after the effective date of the act that enacted this subdivision and before July 1, 1981.

(b) After any sale or other disposition of a motor vehicle unless the court has determined that the sale or other disposition was in conformity with the provisions of this chapter and the relevant provisions of Division 9 (commencing with Section 9101) of the Commercial Code, including Sections 9610, 9611, 9612, 9613, 9614, 9615, and 9626. The determination may be made upon an affidavit unless the court requires a hearing in the particular case.

2984. Any failure to comply with any provision of this chapter (commencing with Section 2981) may be corrected by the holder, provided, however, that a willful violation may not be corrected unless it is a violation appearing on the face of the contract and is corrected within 30 days of the execution of the contract or within 20 days of its sale, assignment or pledge, whichever is later, provided that the 20-day period shall commence with the initial sale, assignment or pledge of the contract, and provided that any other violation appearing on the face of the contract may be corrected only within such time periods. A correction which will increase the amount of the contract balance or the amount of any installment as such amounts appear on the conditional sale contract shall not be effective unless the buyer concurs in writing to the correction. If notified in writing by the buyer of such a failure to comply with any provision of this chapter, the correction shall be made within 10 days of notice. Where any provision of a conditional sale contract fails to comply with any provision of this chapter, the correction shall be made by mailing or delivering a corrected copy of the contract to the buyer. Any amount improperly collected by the holder from the buyer shall be credited against the indebtedness evidenced by the contract or returned to the buyer. A violation corrected as provided in this section shall not be the basis of any recovery by the buyer or affect the enforceability of the contract by the holder and shall not be deemed to be a substantive change in the agreement of the parties.

2984.1. Every conditional sale contract shall contain a statement in contrasting red print in at least 8-point bold type which shall satisfy the requirements of Section 5604 of the Vehicle Code and be signed or initialed by the buyer, as follows:

THE MINIMUM PUBLIC LIABILITY INSURANCE LIMITS PROVIDED IN LAW MUST BE MET BY EVERY PERSON WHO PURCHASES A VEHICLE. IF YOU ARE UNSURE WHETHER OR NOT YOUR CURRENT INSURANCE POLICY WILL COVER YOUR NEWLY ACQUIRED VEHICLE IN THE EVENT OF AN ACCIDENT, YOU SHOULD CONTACT YOUR INSURANCE AGENT.

WARNING:
YOUR PRESENT POLICY MAY NOT COVER COLLISION DAMAGE OR MAY NOT PROVIDE FOR FULL REPLACEMENT COSTS FOR THE VEHICLE BEING PURCHASED. IF YOU DO NOT HAVE FULL COVERAGE, SUPPLEMENTAL COVERAGE FOR COLLISION DAMAGE MAY BE AVAILABLE TO YOU THROUGH YOUR INSURANCE AGENT OR THROUGH THE SELLING DEALER. HOWEVER, UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED, THE COVERAGE YOU OBTAIN THROUGH THE DEALER PROTECTS ONLY THE DEALER, USUALLY UP TO THE AMOUNT OF THE UNPAID BALANCE REMAINING AFTER THE VEHICLE HAS BEEN REPOSSESSED AND SOLD.

FOR ADVICE ON FULL COVERAGE THAT WILL PROTECT YOU IN THE EVENT OF LOSS OR DAMAGE TO YOUR VEHICLE, YOU SHOULD CONTACT YOUR INSURANCE AGENT.

THE BUYER SHALL SIGN TO ACKNOWLEDGE THAT HE/SHE UNDERSTANDS THESE PUBLIC LIABILITY TERMS AND CONDITIONS.

s/s ____________.

No person shall print for use as a sales contract form, any form which does not comply with this section.

2984.2. (a) No conditional sale contract, and no agreement between a seller and a buyer made in connection with a conditional sale contract, may provide for the inclusion of title to or a lien upon any property other than the following:

1) The motor vehicle which is the subject matter of the sale, including any replacement of that motor vehicle, or accessories, accessions, or replacement of those accessories or accessions, or proceeds thereof.

(2) The proceeds of any insurance policies covering the motor vehicle which are required by the seller or the returned premiums of any such policies if the premiums for such policies are included in the amount financed.

(3) The proceeds of any credit insurance policies which the buyer purchases in connection with the motor vehicle conditional sale contract or the returned premiums of any such policies if the premiums for such policies are included in the amount financed.

(4) The proceeds and returned price of any service contract if the cost of such contract is included in the amount financed.

(b) Subdivision (a) shall not apply to any agreement which meets the requirements of subdivision (b) of Section 2982.5 and otherwise complies with this chapter, nor, with respect to a mobilehome sold prior to July 1, 1981, to any agreement whereby a security interest is taken in real property on which the mobilehome is installed on a foundation system pursuant to Section 18551 of the Health and Safety Code.

(c) A provision in violation of this section shall be void.

2984.4. (a) An action on a contract or purchase order under this chapter shall be tried in the superior court in the county where the contract or purchase order was in fact signed by the buyer, where the buyer resided at the time the contract or purchase order was entered into, where the buyer resides at the commencement of the action, or where the motor vehicle purchased pursuant to the contract or purchase order is permanently garaged.

In any action involving multiple claims, or causes of action, venue shall lie in those courts if there is at least one claim or cause of action arising from a contract subject to this chapter.

(b) In the superior court designated as the proper court in subdivision (a), the proper court location for trial of an action under this chapter is the location where the court tries that type of action that is nearest or most accessible to where the contract, conditional sale contract, or purchase order was in fact signed by the buyer, where the buyer resided at the time the contract, conditional sale contract, or purchase order was entered into, where the buyer resides at the commencement of the action, or where the motor vehicle purchased pursuant to the contract is permanently garaged. Otherwise, any location of the superior court designated as the proper superior court in subdivision (a) is the proper court location for the trial of the action. The court may specify by local rule the nearest or most accessible court location where the court tries that type of case.

(c) In any action subject to this section, concurrently with the filing of the complaint, the plaintiff shall file an affidavit stating facts showing that the action has been commenced in a superior court and court location described in this section as a proper place for the trial of the action. Those facts may be stated in a verified complaint and shall not be stated on information or belief. When that affidavit is filed with the complaint, a copy shall be served with the summons. If a plaintiff fails to file the affidavit or state facts in a verified complaint required by this section, no further proceedings may occur, but the court shall, upon its own motion or upon motion of any party, dismiss the action without prejudice. The court may, on terms that are just, permit the affidavit to be filed subsequent to the filing of the complaint and a copy of the affidavit shall be served on the defendant. The time to answer or otherwise plead shall date from that service.

2984.5. (a) A seller shall maintain the following documents for at least seven years or the length of the conditional sales contract, whichever is longer:

(1) A copy of each buyer's conditional sales contract.

(2) Any documents relied upon by the seller to determine a buyer's creditworthiness, including, but not limited to, any consumer credit report, as defined in Section 1785.3, or any other document containing a buyer's credit score, as defined in Section 1785.15.1.

(3) If the conditional sales contract is sold, assigned, or otherwise transferred, a copy of the terms of that sale, assignment, or transfer.

(b) A seller that unlawfully fails to comply with a court order to produce the documents described in subdivision (a) shall be liable in an action brought by the Attorney General for a civil penalty of five thousand dollars ($5,000) per violation. The penalties provided by this section are in addition to all rights and remedies that are otherwise available under law.

2985.7. (a) "Motor vehicle" means any vehicle required to be registered under the Vehicle Code. Motor vehicle does not include any trailer which is sold in conjunction with a vessel.

(b) "Lessor" includes "bailor" and is a person who is engaged in the business of leasing, offering to lease or arranging the lease of a motor vehicle under a lease contract.

For the purpose of this subdivision, "person" means an individual, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, estate, trust, cooperative, association or any other legal entity.

(c) "Lessee" includes "bailee" and is a natural person who leases, offers to lease or is offered the lease of a motor vehicle under a lease contract.

(d) "Lease contract" means any contract for or in contemplation of the lease or bailment for the use of a motor vehicle, and the purchase of services incidental thereto, by a natural person for a term exceeding four months, primarily for personal, family or household purposes, whether or not it is agreed that the lessee bear the risk of the motor vehicle's depreciation. Lease contract does not include a lease for agricultural, business or commercial purposes, or to a government or governmental agency or instrumentality.

(e) "Regulation M" means any rule, regulation, or interpretation promulgated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System under the federal Consumer Leasing Act (15 U.S.C. Secs. 1667-1667e), and any interpretation or approval issued by an official or employee of the Federal Reserve System duly authorized by the board to issue such interpretations or approvals.

(f) "Constant yield method" means the following:

(1) In the case of a periodic payment lease, the method of determining the rent charge portion of each base payment in which the rent charge for each computational period is earned in advance by multiplying the constant rate implicit in the lease contract times the balance subject to rent charge as it declines during the scheduled lease term. At any time during the scheduled term of a periodic payment lease, the balance subject to rent charge is the difference between the adjusted capitalized cost and the sum of (A) all depreciation and other amortized amounts accrued during the preceding computational periods and (B) the first base periodic payment.

(2) In the case of a single payment lease, the method of determining the periodic earning of rent charges in which the rent charge for each computational period is earned in advance by multiplying the constant rate implicit in the lease contract times the balance subject to rent charge as it increases during the scheduled lease term. At any time during the scheduled term of a single payment lease, the balance subject to rent charge is determined by subtracting from the residual value the total rent charge scheduled to be earned over the term of the lease contract and adding to the difference all rent charges accrued during the preceding computational periods.

(3) Periodic rent charge calculations are based on the assumption that the lessor will receive the lease payments on their exact due dates and that the lease does not end before its scheduled termination date.

2985.8.(a) A lease contract shall be in writing, and the print portion of the contract shall be printed in at least 8-point type and shall contain in a single document all of the agreements of the lessor and lessee with respect to the obligations of each party.

(b) At the top of the lease contract, a title that contains the words “LEASE CONTRACT” or “LEASE AGREEMENT” shall appear in at least 12-point boldface type.

(c) A lease contract shall disclose all of the following:

(1) All of the information prescribed by Regulation M set forth in the manner required or permitted by Regulation M, whether or not Regulation M applies to the transaction.

(2) A separate statement labeled “Itemization of Gross Capitalized Cost” that shall appear immediately following or directly adjacent to the disclosures required to be segregated by Regulation M. The Itemization of Gross Capitalized Cost shall include all of the following and shall be circumscribed by a line:

(A) The agreed-upon value of the vehicle as equipped at the time of signing the lease.

(B) The agreed-upon value and a description of each accessory and item of optional equipment the lessor agrees to add to the vehicle after signing the lease.

(C) The premium for each policy of insurance.

(D) The amount charged for each service contract.

(E) Any charge for an optional debt cancellation agreement.

(F) Any outstanding prior credit or lease balance.

(G) An itemization by type and agreed-upon value of each good or service included in the gross capitalized cost other than those items included in the disclosures required in subparagraphs (A) to (F), inclusive.

(3) The vehicle identification number of the leased vehicle.

(4) A brief description of each vehicle or other property being traded in and the agreed-upon value of the vehicle or property if the amount due at the time of signing the lease or upon delivery is paid in whole or in part with a net trade-in allowance or the “Itemization of Gross Capitalized Cost” includes any portion of the outstanding prior credit or lease balance from the trade-in property.

(5) The charge, if any, to be retained by the lessor for document processing authorized pursuant to Section 4456.5 of the Vehicle Code, which may not be represented as a governmental fee.

(6) The charge, if any, to electronically register or transfer the vehicle authorized pursuant to Section 4456.5 of the Vehicle Code, which shall not be represented as a governmental fee.

(d) A lease contract shall contain, in at least 8-point boldface type, above the space provided for the lessee's signature and circumscribed by a line, the following notice: “(1) Do not sign this lease before you read it or if it contains any blank spaces to be filled in; (2) You are entitled to a completely filled in copy of this lease; (3) Warning--Unless a charge is included in this lease for public liability or property damage insurance, payment for that coverage is not provided by this lease.”

(e) A lease contract shall contain, in at least 8-point boldface type, on the first page of the contract and circumscribed by a line, the following notice:

"THERE IS NO COOLING OFF PERIOD

California law does not provide for a “cooling off” or other cancellation period for vehicle leases. Therefore, you cannot later cancel this lease simply because you change your mind, decided the vehicle costs too much, or wish you had acquired a different vehicle. You may cancel this lease only with the agreement of the lessor or for legal cause, such as fraud.”

(f) A lease contract shall contain, in at least 8-point boldface type, the following notice: “You have the right to return the vehicle, and receive a refund of any payments made if the credit application is not approved, unless nonapproval results from an incomplete application or from incorrect information provided by you.”

(g) The lease contract shall be signed by the lessor and lessee, or their authorized representatives, and an exact copy of the fully executed lease contract shall be provided to the lessee at the time of signing.

(h) A motor vehicle shall not be delivered under a lease contract subject to this chapter until the lessor provides to the lessee a fully executed copy of the lease contract.

(i) The lessor shall not obtain the signature of the lessee to a contract when it contains blank spaces to be filled in after it has been signed.

(j)If the lease contract contains a provision that holds the lessee liable for the difference between (1) the adjusted capitalized cost disclosed in the lease contract reduced by the amounts described in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (5) of subdivision (b) of Section 2987 and (2) the settlement proceeds of the lessee's required insurance and deductible in the event of theft or damage to the vehicle that results in a total loss, the lease contract shall contain the following notice in at least 8-point boldface type on the first page of the contract:

“GAP LIABILITY NOTICE  

In the event of theft or damage to the vehicle that results in a total loss, there may be a GAP between the amount due upon early termination and the proceeds of your insurance settlement and deductible. THIS LEASE PROVIDES THAT YOU ARE LIABLE FOR THE GAP AMOUNT. Optional coverage for the GAP amount may be offered for an additional price.”

(k) This section shall become operative on July 1, 2012.

2986.3. No lease contract shall contain any provision by which:

(a) A power of attorney is given to confess judgment in this state, or an assignment of wages is given; provided that nothing herein contained shall prohibit the giving of an assignment of wages contained in a separate instrument pursuant to Section 300 of the Labor Code.

(b) The lessee waives any right of action against the lessor or holder of the contract or other person acting on his or her behalf for any illegal act committed in the collection of payments under the contract or in the repossession of the motor vehicle.

(c) The lessee relieves the lessor from liability for any legal remedies which the lessee may have against the lessor under the contract or any separate instruments executed in connection therewith.

(d) The lessor or holder of the contract is given the right to commence action on a contract under the provisions of this chapter in a county other than the county in which the contract was in fact signed by the lessee, the county in which the lessee resides at the commencement of the action, the county in which the lessee resided at the time the contract was entered into or in the county in which the motor vehicle leased pursuant to such contract is permanently garaged.

2986.5. (a) No person shall lease a used motor vehicle for operation on California highways if such vehicle does not meet all of the equipment requirements of Division 12 (commencing with Section 24000) of the Vehicle Code. This subdivision does not apply to an extension or a subsequent lease of the same motor vehicle to the same lessee.

(b) If a lessee of a vehicle pays to the lessor an amount for the licensing or transfer of title of the vehicle which amount is in excess of the actual fees due for such licensing or transfer, or which amount is in excess of the amount which has been paid, prior to the sale, by the lessor to the state in order to avoid penalties that would have accrued because of late payment of such fees, the lessor shall return such excess amount to the lessee, whether or not such lessee requests the return of the excess amount.

2986.6. No agreement in connection with a lease contract which provides for the inclusion of title to or a lien upon any personal or real property, other than the motor vehicle which is the subject matter of the lease contract, or accessories therefor, or special and auxiliary equipment used in connection therewith, as security for the payment of the contract obligations, shall be enforceable. This section does not apply to a security deposit, advance payment of rent or other cash prepayment.

2986.12. It shall be unlawful for any lessor to induce or attempt to induce any person to enter into a contract subject to this chapter by offering a rebate, discount, commission or other consideration, on the condition that the lessee gives information or assistance for the purpose of enabling a lessor to either lease or sell a motor vehicle to another.

2986.13. (a) Any payment made by a lessee to a lessor pending the execution of a lease contract shall be refunded to the lessee in the event the lease contract is not executed.

(b) In the event of breach by the lessor of a lease contract where the lessee leaves his or her motor vehicle with the lessor as a trade-in downpayment and the motor vehicle is not returned by the lessor to the lessee for whatever reason, the lessee may recover from the lessor either the fair market value of the motor vehicle left as a downpayment or its value as stated in the lease contract, whichever is greater. The recovery shall be tendered to the lessee within five business days after the breach.

(c) The remedies of the buyer provided for in subdivision (b) are nonexclusive and cumulative and shall not preclude the lessee from pursuing any other remedy which he or she may have under any other provision of law.

2987. (a) A lessee has the right to terminate a lease contract at any time prior to the scheduled expiration date specified in the lease contract. Except as provided in subdivision (f), all of the following subdivisions of this section apply in the event of an early termination.

(b) The lessee's liability shall not exceed the sum of the following:

(1) All unpaid periodic lease payments that have accrued up to the date of termination.

(2) All other amounts due and unpaid by the lessee under the lease contract, other than excess wear and mileage charges and unpaid periodic lease payments.

(3) Any charges, however denominated, that the lessor or holder of the lease contract may assess in connection with termination not to exceed in the aggregate the amount of a reasonable disposition fee, if any, disclosed in the lease contract and assessed upon termination of the lease contract.

(4) In the event of the lessee's default, reasonable fees paid by the lessor or holder for reconditioning of the leased vehicle and reasonable and necessary fees paid by the lessor or holder, if any, in connection with the repossession and storage of the leased vehicle.

(5) The difference, if any, between the adjusted capitalized cost disclosed in the lease contract and the sum of (A) all depreciation and other amortized amounts accrued through the date of early termination, calculated in accordance with the constant yield or other generally accepted actuarial method, and (B) the realized value of the vehicle as provided in subdivision (c).

(c) Subject to subdivision (d), the realized value of the vehicle used to calculate the lessee's liability under paragraph (5) of subdivision (b) shall be (1) if the lessee maintains insurance on the leased vehicle as required in the lease contract and the vehicle is a total loss as a result of theft or damage, the amount of any applicable insurance deductible owed by the lessee and the proceeds of the settlement of the insurance claim, unless a higher amount is agreed to by the holder of the lease contract, (2) if the lessee elects to have an appraisal conducted as provided in Regulation M, the value determined on appraisal, (3) if the holder of the lease contract or lessor elects to retain ownership of the vehicle for use or to lease to a subsequent lessee, the wholesale value of the vehicle as specified in the current edition of a recognized used vehicle value guide customarily used by California motor vehicle dealers to value vehicles in this state, including, but not limited to, the Kelley Blue Book Auto Market Report and the N.A.D.A. Official Used Car Guide, or (4) under all other circumstances, the higher of (A) the price paid for the vehicle upon disposition, or (B) any other amount established by the lessor or the lease contract.

(d) (1) The lessor or holder of the lease contract shall act in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner in connection with the disposition of the vehicle.

(2) In addition to the requirements of paragraph (1), any disposition of the vehicle shall be preceded by a notice complying with both of the following:

(A) The notice shall be in writing and given by the holder of the contract to each lessee and guarantor at least 10 days in advance of any disposition or the date by which the value of the vehicle will be determined pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (c). The notice shall be personally served or shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, or first-class mail, postage prepaid, directed to the last known address of each lessee and guarantor. One notice is sufficient if those persons are married to each other and the most recent records of the holder of the lease contract indicate that they reside at the same address. The last known address of each lessee and guarantor shall be presumed to be the address stated in the lease contract or guaranty for each lessee and guarantor unless the lessee or guarantor notifies the holder of the lease contract of a change of address.

(B) The notice shall set forth (i) the time and place of any public sale, the time on or after which a private sale or other intended disposition is to be made, or the date by which the value of the vehicle will be determined pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (c), (ii) an itemization of all amounts claimed under paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive, of subdivision (b), (iii) the amount of the difference between the adjusted capitalized cost and the sum of all depreciation and other amortized amounts paid through the date of early termination as provided in paragraph (5) of subdivision (b), (iv) the total of these amounts identified as the "Gross Early Termination Amount," and (v) one of the following statements, whichever is applicable:

(To be inserted when the realized value will be determined pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (c))

"The amount you owe for early termination will be no more than the difference between the Gross Early Termination Amount stated above and (1) the appraised value of the vehicle or (2) if there is no appraisal, the wholesale value specified in a recognized used vehicle value guide.

You have the right to get a professional appraisal to establish the value of the vehicle for the purpose of figuring how much you owe on the lease. If you want an appraisal, you will have to arrange for it to be completed at least three days before the scheduled valuation date. The appraiser has to be an independent person acceptable to the holder of the lease. You will have to pay for the appraiser. The appraised value will be considered final and binding on you and the holder of the lease."

(To be inserted in all other circumstances)

"The amount you owe for early termination will be no more than the difference between the Gross Early Termination Amount stated above and (1) the appraised value of the vehicle or (2) if there is no appraisal, either the price received for the vehicle upon disposition or a greater amount established by the lessor or the lease contract.

You have the right to get a professional appraisal to establish the value of the vehicle for the purpose of figuring how much you owe on the lease. If you want an appraisal, you will have to arrange for it to be completed at least three days before the scheduled sale date of the vehicle. The appraiser has to be an independent person acceptable to the holder of the lease. You will have to pay for the appraiser. The appraised value will be considered final and binding on you and the holder of the lease."

(3) The lessee shall have no liability under subdivision (b) if the lessor or holder of the lease contract does not comply with this subdivision. This paragraph does not apply under all the following conditions:

(A) Noncompliance was the result of a bona fide error in stating an amount required to be disclosed pursuant to clause (ii), (iii), or (iv) of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2).

(B) The holder of the lease gives the lessee written notice of the error within 30 days after discovering the error and before (i) an action is filed to recover the amount claimed to be owed or (ii) written notice of the error is received by the holder of the lease from the lessee.

(C) The lessee is liable for the lesser of the originally claimed amount or the correct amount.

(D) The holder of the lease refunds any amount collected in excess of the amount described in subparagraph (C) within 10 days after notice of the error is given. "Bona fide error," as used in this paragraph, means an error that was not intentional and occurred notwithstanding the maintenance of procedures reasonably adapted to avoid that error. Examples of a bona fide error include clerical errors, calculation errors, errors due to unintentionally improper computer programming or data entry, and printing errors, but does not include an error of legal judgment with respect to a lessor's or lease contractholder's obligations under this section.

(4) This subdivision does not apply when the lessee maintains insurance on the leased vehicle as required in the lease contract and the vehicle is declared a total loss by the insurer as a result of theft or damage.

(e) The lessor or holder of the lease contract shall credit any security deposit or advance rental payment held by the lessor or holder of the lease contract against the lessee's liability under the lease contract as limited by this section. The portion of a security deposit or advance rental payment, if any, remaining after the lessee's liability under the lease contract as limited by this section has been satisfied shall be returned to the lessee within 30 days of the satisfaction of the obligation.

(f) Subdivisions (b) to (d), inclusive, do not apply if, prior to the scheduled expiration date specified in the lease contract, the lessee terminates the lease and purchases the vehicle or trades in the vehicle in connection with the purchase or lease of another vehicle. In such an event, the selling price of the leased vehicle, exclusive of taxes and other charges incidental to the sale, shall not exceed the sum of the following and shall relieve the lessee of any further liability under the lease contract:

(1) All unpaid periodic lease payments that have accrued up to the date of termination.

(2) All other amounts due and unpaid by the lessee under the lease contract, other than excess wear and mileage charges and unpaid periodic lease payments.

(3) Any charges, however denominated, that the lessor or holder of the lease contract may assess in connection with termination of the lease contract and the acquisition of the vehicle, not to exceed in the aggregate the amount of a reasonable purchase option fee, if any, disclosed in the lease contract and assessed upon the scheduled termination of the lease contract.

(4) The adjusted capitalized cost disclosed in the lease contract less all depreciation and other amortized amounts accrued through the date of early termination, calculated in accordance with the constant yield or other generally accepted actuarial method.

(g) If the lessee terminates a lease contract, voluntarily returns possession of the vehicle to the lessor, and timely pays all sums required under the lease contract as limited by this section, the lessor or holder shall not provide any adverse information concerning the early termination to any consumer credit reporting agency.

(h) The Rule of 78 shall not be used to calculate accrued rent charges.

(i) This section shall only apply to lease contracts entered into on and after January 1, 1998.

2988. (a) The Legislature finds that it is necessary to provide some protection for consumers who enter into lease contracts in which the lessee will bear the risk of the motor vehicle's depreciation. This section is intended to provide relief to the consumer when an ostensibly inexpensive lease contract establishes an excessively low level of periodic payment which results, conversely, in an excessively high liability being imposed on the lessee at the expiration of the lease term because the lessor has failed to act in good faith in either estimating a residual value of the motor vehicle or establishing a level of periodic payment which bears no reasonable relation to the motor vehicle's reasonably expected depreciation during the lease term. Therefore, the lessor will have the obligation to act in good faith and to come forward with competent evidence showing that the estimated residual value was so determined given the circumstances existing at the inception of the lease contract.

(b) Where the lessee is to bear the risk of the motor vehicle's depreciation and the lessee's liability on expiration of a consumer lease is based on the estimated residual value of the motor vehicle such estimated residual value shall be a reasonable approximation of the anticipated actual fair market value of the motor vehicle on lease expiration. There shall be a rebuttable presumption that the estimated residual value is unreasonable to the extent that the estimated residual value exceeds the actual residual value by more than three times the average payment allocable to a monthly period under the lease. The presumption stated in the preceding sentence shall not apply to the extent the excess of estimated over actual residual value is due to physical damage to the motor vehicle beyond reasonable wear and use, or to excessive use, and the lease may set standards for such wear and use if such standards are not unreasonable.

(c) For the purposes of this chapter, "fair market value" means the value the motor vehicle would have when sold in a commercially reasonable manner in the customary market for such motor vehicle.

2988.5. (a) Except as otherwise provided by this section, any lessor who fails to comply with any requirement imposed under Section 2985.8 or 2988 for which no specific relief is provided with respect to any person shall be liable to such person in an amount equal to the sum of:

(1) Any actual damages sustained by such person as a result of the failure.

(2) In the case of an individual action, 25 percent of the total amount of monthly payments under the lease except that liability under this subparagraph shall not be less than one hundred dollars ($100) nor greater than one thousand dollars ($1,000); or in the case of a class action, such amount as the court may allow, except that as to each member of the class no minimum recovery shall be applicable, and the total recovery in such action shall not be more than the lesser of five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000) or 1 percent of the net worth of the lessor.

(3) The costs of the action, together with a reasonable attorney's fee as determined by the court.

(b) In determining the amount of award in any class action, the court shall consider, among other relevant factors, the amount of any actual damages sustained, the frequency and persistence of failure of compliance by the lessor, the resources of the lessor, the number of persons adversely affected, and the extent to which the lessor's failure of compliance was intentional.

(c) A lessor shall not be liable under this section if within 15 days after discovery of an error, and prior to the institution of an action under this section or the receipt of written notice of the error, the lessor notifies the person concerned of the error and makes whatever adjustments in the appropriate account are necessary to insure that the person will not be required to pay any amount in excess of the amount that should correctly have been disclosed.

(d) A lessor may not be held liable in any action brought under this section for a violation of this chapter if the lessor shows by a preponderance of evidence that the violation was not intentional and resulted from a bona fide error notwithstanding the maintenance of procedures reasonably adopted to avoid any such error.

(e) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter, any civil action for a violation of this chapter which may be brought against the original lessor in any lease transaction may be maintained against any subsequent assignee of the original lessor where the violation from which the alleged liability arose is apparent on the face of the instrument assigned unless the assignment is involuntary.

(f) A person may not take any action to offset any amount for which a lessor is potentially liable to such person under paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) against any amount owing to such lessor by such person, unless the amount of the lessor's liability to such person has been determined by judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction in an action to which such person was a party.

(g) No provision of this section imposing any liability shall apply to any act done or omitted in good faith conformity with any rule, regulation or interpretation of federal law, notwithstanding that after such act or omission has occurred, such rule, regulation or interpretation is amended, rescinded or determined by judicial or other authority to be invalid for any reason.

(h) The multiple failure to disclose any information required under this chapter to be disclosed in connection with a single lease transaction shall entitle the person to a single recovery under this section, but continued failure to disclose after a recovery has been granted shall give rise to rights to additional recoveries.

(i) Actions alleging a failure to disclose or otherwise comply with the requirements of this chapter shall be brought within one year of the termination of the lease contract.

2988.7. If the lessor fails to comply with Section 2985.8, as an alternative to an action under Section 2988.5, the lessee may rescind the contract if the failure to comply was willful, or if correction will increase the amount of the contract balance, unless the lessor waives the collection of the increased amount.

2988.9. Reasonable attorney's fees and costs shall be awarded to the prevailing party in any action on a lease contract subject to the provisions of this chapter regardless of whether the action is instituted by the lessor, assignee, or lessee. Where the defendant alleges in his or her answer that he or she tendered to the plaintiff the full amount to which he or she was entitled, and thereupon deposits in court, for the plaintiff, the amount so tendered, and the allegation is found to be true, then the defendant is deemed to be the prevailing party within the meaning of this section.

2989. No civil action shall be filed against a lessor under the authority of this chapter if a federal civil action has previously been filed based on facts that give rise to a similar cause of action under this chapter.

2989.2. Where the lessee is to bear the risk of the motor vehicle's depreciation upon the scheduled expiration of the lease contract, the following applies:

(a) When disposing of a vehicle or obtaining cash bids for the purpose of setting the fair market value of a vehicle, the lessor shall act in a commercially reasonable manner in the customary market for such vehicle.

(b) Any provision in a lease contract to the contrary notwithstanding, at least 10 days written notice of intent to sell such motor vehicle shall be given by the holder of the contract to each lessee and guarantor, unless the lessor and lessee have agreed in writing to the amount of the lessee's liability under the lease contract after the lessee returns the motor vehicle to the lessor, or the lessee has satisfied the lease contract obligations by payment to the lessor. The notice shall be personally served or shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, directed to the address of the lessee shown on the contract, unless the lessee has notified the holder in writing of a different address. The notice shall set forth separately any charges or sums due and state that the lessee will be liable for the difference between the amount of liability imposed on the lessee at the expiration of the lease term and the actual cash value of the motor vehicle when it is sold. The notice shall also state that the lessee has the right to submit a cash bid for the purchase of the vehicle.

2989.4. (a) A lessor shall not:

(1) Fail to register the leased vehicle pursuant to the lease contract.

(2) Advertise any specific vehicle in the inventory of the lessor for lease without identifying such vehicle by either its vehicle identification number or license number.

(3) Refuse to lease a vehicle to any creditworthy person at the advertised total price, exclusive of sales tax, vehicle registration fees and finance charges.

(b) Notwithstanding Section 2988.5, a lessor shall not suffer civil liability for a violation of this section.

2990. This chapter shall not apply to any transaction which is regulated by Chapter 2b (commencing with Section 2981) of this title.

3067. Words used in this chapter which are defined in Division 1 of the Vehicle Code shall have the same meaning as in the Vehicle Code.

3068. (a) Every person has a lien dependent upon possession for the compensation to which the person is legally entitled for making repairs or performing labor upon, and furnishing supplies or materials for, and for the storage, repair, or safekeeping of, and for the rental of parking space for, any vehicle of a type subject to registration under the Vehicle Code, subject to the limitations set forth in this chapter. The lien shall be deemed to arise at the time a written statement of charges for completed work or services is presented to the registered owner or 15 days after the work or services are completed, whichever occurs first. Upon completion of the work or services, the lienholder shall not dismantle, remove, or strip from the vehicle the parts used to complete the work or services.

(b) (1) Any lien under this section that arises because work or services have been performed on a vehicle with the consent of the registered owner shall be extinguished and no lien sale shall be conducted unless either of the following occurs:

(A) The lienholder applies for an authorization to conduct a lien sale within 30 days after the lien has arisen.

(B) An action in court is filed within 30 days after the lien has arisen.

(2) A person whose lien for work or services on a vehicle has been extinguished shall turn over possession of the vehicle, at the place where the work or services were performed, to the legal owner or the lessor upon demand of the legal owner or lessor, and upon tender by the legal owner or lessor, by cashier's check or in cash, of only the amount for storage, safekeeping, or parking space rental for the vehicle to which the person is entitled by subdivision (c).

(3) Any lien under this section that arises because work or services have been performed on a vehicle with the consent of the registered owner shall be extinguished, and no lien sale shall be conducted, if the lienholder, after written demand made by either personal service or certified mail with return receipt requested by the legal owner or the lessor to inspect the vehicle, fails to permit that inspection by the legal owner or lessor, or his or her agent, within a period of time not sooner than 24 hours nor later than 72 hours after the receipt of that written demand, during the normal business hours of the lienholder.

(4) Any lien under this section that arises because work or services have been performed on a vehicle with the consent of the registered owner shall be extinguished, and no lien sale shall be conducted, if the lienholder, after written demand made by either personal service or certified mail with return receipt requested by the legal owner or the lessor to receive a written copy of the work order or invoice reflecting the services or repairs performed on the vehicle and the authorization from the registered owner requesting the lienholder to perform the services or repairs, fails to provide that copy to the legal owner or lessor, or his or her agent, within 10 days after the receipt of that written demand.

(c) The lienholder shall not charge the legal owner or lessor any amount for release of the vehicle in excess of the amounts authorized by this subdivision.

(1) That portion of the lien in excess of one thousand five hundred dollars ($1,500) for any work or services, or that amount, subject to the limitations contained in Section 10652.5 of the Vehicle Code, in excess of one thousand twenty-five dollars ($1,025) for any storage, safekeeping, or rental of parking space or, if an application for an authorization to conduct a lien sale has been filed pursuant to Section 3071 within 30 days after the commencement of the storage or safekeeping, in excess of one thousand two hundred fifty dollars ($1,250) for any storage or safekeeping, rendered or performed at the request of any person other than the legal owner or lessor, is invalid, unless prior to commencing any work, services, storage, safekeeping, or rental of parking space, the person claiming the lien gives actual notice in writing either by personal service or by registered letter addressed to the legal owner named in the registration certificate, and the written consent of that legal owner is obtained before any work, services, storage, safekeeping, or rental of parking space are performed.

(2) Subject to the limitations contained in Section 10652.5 of the Vehicle Code, if any portion of a lien includes charges for the care, storage, or safekeeping of, or for the rental of parking space for, a vehicle for a period in excess of 60 days, the portion of the lien that accrued after the expiration of that period is invalid unless Sections 10650 and 10652 of the Vehicle Code have been complied with by the holder of the lien.

(3) The charge for the care, storage, or safekeeping of a vehicle which may be charged to the legal owner or lessor shall not exceed that for one day of storage if, 24 hours or less after the vehicle is placed in storage, a request is made for the release of the vehicle.

If the request is made more than 24 hours after the vehicle is placed in storage, charges may be imposed on a full, calendar-day basis for each day, or part thereof, that the vehicle is in storage.

(d) In any action brought by or on behalf of the legal owner or lessor to recover a vehicle alleged to be wrongfully withheld by the person claiming a lien pursuant to this section, the prevailing party shall be entitled to reasonable attorney's fees and costs, not to exceed one thousand seven hundred fifty dollars ($1,750).

3262. (a) Neither the owner nor original contractor by any term of a contract, or otherwise, shall waive, affect, or impair the claims and liens of other persons whether with or without notice except by their written consent, and any term of the contract to that effect shall be null and void. Any written consent given by any claimant pursuant to this subdivision shall be null, void, and unenforceable unless and until the claimant executes and delivers a waiver and release. That waiver and release shall be binding and effective to release the owner, construction lender, and surety on a payment bond from claims and liens only if the waiver and release follows substantially one of the forms set forth in this section and is signed by the claimant or his or her authorized agent, and, in the case of a conditional release, there is evidence of payment to the claimant. Evidence of payment may be by the claimant's endorsement on a single or joint payee check that has been paid by the bank upon which it was drawn or by written acknowledgment of payment given by the claimant.

(b) (1) No oral or written statement purporting to waive, release, impair, or otherwise adversely affect a claim is enforceable or creates any estoppel or impairment of a claim unless either:

(A) It is pursuant to a waiver and release prescribed in this section.

(B) The claimant had actually received payment in full for the claim.

(2) Nothing in this section precludes a stop notice claimant from reducing the amount of, or releasing in its entirety, a stop notice that has been served upon an owner. The reduction or release of a stop notice, which shall be in writing, may be served in a form other than the forms of release set forth in this section. Any reduction or release of a stop notice:

(A) Shall not preclude the service of a subsequent stop notice that is timely and proper.

(B) Shall release the owner from any obligation to withhold money on account of the stop notice, to the extent of the reduction or release.

(C) Shall be effective to release the claimant's right to enforce the stop notice, to the extent of the reduction or release.

(D) Shall not operate as a release of any right that the claimant may have, other than the claimant's right to enforce the stop notice, to the extent of the reduction or release.

(c) This section does not affect the enforceability of either an accord and satisfaction regarding a bona fide dispute or any agreement made in settlement of an action pending in any court provided the accord and satisfaction or agreement and settlement make specific reference to the mechanic's lien, stop notice, or bond claims.

(d) The waiver and release given by any claimant pursuant to this section shall be null, void, and unenforceable unless it follows substantially the following forms in the following circumstances:

(1) If the claimant is required to execute a waiver and release in exchange for, or in order to induce the payment of, a progress payment and the claimant is not, in fact, paid in exchange for the waiver and release or a single payee check or joint payee check is given in exchange for the waiver and release, the waiver and release shall follow substantially the following form:


      CONDITIONAL WAIVER AND RELEASE UPON PROGRESS PAYMENT

Upon receipt by the undersigned of a check from __________ (Maker of Check) in the sum of $_____ (Amount of Check) payable to __________ (Payee or Payees of Check) and when the check has been properly endorsed and has been paid by the bank upon which it is drawn, this document shall become effective to release any mechanic's lien, stop notice, or bond right the undersigned has on the job of __________ (Owner) located at __________ (Job Description) to the following extent. This release covers a progress payment for labor, services, equipment, or material furnished to __________ (Your Customer) through __________ (Date) only and does not cover any retentions retained before or after the release date; extras furnished before the release date for which payment has not been received; extras or items furnished after the release date. Rights based upon work performed or items furnished under a written change order which has been fully executed by the parties prior to the release date are covered by this release unless specifically reserved by the claimant in this release. This release of any mechanic's lien, stop notice, or bond right shall not otherwise affect the contract rights, including rights between parties to the contract based upon a rescission, abandonment, or breach of the contract, or the right of the undersigned to recover compensation for furnished labor, services, equipment, or material covered by this release if that furnished labor, services, equipment, or material was not compensated by the progress payment. Before any recipient of this document relies on it, said party should verify evidence of payment to the undersigned.


Dated: _______________

    ______________________
    (Company Name)
  By __________________
    (Title)

(2) If the claimant is required to execute a waiver and release in exchange for, or in order to induce payment of, a progress payment and the claimant asserts in the waiver it has, in fact, been paid the progress payment, the waiver and release shall follow substantially the following form:


                  UNCONDITIONAL WAIVER AND RELEASE
                           UPON PROGRESS PAYMENT

The undersigned has been paid and has received a progress payment in the sum of $_____ for labor, services, equipment, or material furnished to __________ (Your Customer) on the job of __________ (Owner) located at __________ (Job Description) and does hereby release any mechanic's lien, stop notice, or bond right that the undersigned has on the above referenced job to the following extent. This release covers a progress payment for labor, services, equipment, or materials furnished to __________ (Your Customer) through __________ (Date) only and does not cover any retentions retained before or after the release date; extras furnished before the release date for which payment has not been received; extras or items furnished after the release date. Rights based upon work performed or items furnished under a written change order which has been fully executed by the parties prior to the release date are covered by this release unless specifically reserved by the claimant in this release. This release of any mechanic's lien, stop notice, or bond right shall not otherwise affect the contract rights, including rights between parties to the contract based upon a rescission, abandonment, or breach of the contract, or the right of the undersigned to recover compensation for furnished labor, services, equipment, or material covered by this release if that furnished labor, services, equipment, or material was not compensated by the progress payment.

Dated: _______________

    ______________________
    (Company Name)
  By __________________
    (Title)


Each unconditional waiver in this provision shall contain the following language, in at least as large a type as the largest type otherwise on the document:

"NOTICE: THIS DOCUMENT WAIVES RIGHTS UNCONDITIONALLY AND STATES THAT YOU HAVE BEEN PAID FOR GIVING UP THOSE RIGHTS. THIS DOCUMENT IS ENFORCEABLE AGAINST YOU IF YOU SIGN IT, EVEN IF YOU HAVE NOT BEEN PAID. IF YOU HAVE NOT BEEN PAID, USE A CONDITIONAL RELEASE FORM."

(3) If the claimant is required to execute a waiver and release in exchange for, or in order to induce the payment of, a final payment and the claimant is not, in fact, paid in exchange for the waiver and release or a single payee check or joint payee check is given in exchange for the waiver and release, the waiver and release shall follow substantially the following form:


                       CONDITIONAL WAIVER AND RELEASE UPON
                                          FINAL PAYMENT

Upon receipt by the undersigned of a check from __________ in the sum of $_____ payable to __________ and when the check has been properly endorsed and has been paid by the bank upon which it is drawn, this document shall become effective to release any mechanic's lien, stop notice, or bond right the undersigned has on the job of __________ (Owner) located at __________ (Job Description). This release covers the final payment to the undersigned for all labor, services, equipment, or material furnished on the job, except for disputed claims for additional work in the amount of $_____. Before any recipient of this document relies on it, the party should verify evidence of payment to the undersigned.

Dated: _______________

    ______________________
    (Company Name)
  By __________________
    (Title)

(4) If the claimant is required to execute a waiver and release in exchange for, or in order to induce payment of, a final payment and the claimant asserts in the waiver it has, in fact, been paid the final payment, the waiver and release shall follow substantially the following form:


                   UNCONDITIONAL WAIVER AND RELEASE UPON
                                       FINAL PAYMENT

The undersigned has been paid in full for all labor, services, equipment, or material furnished to __________ (Your Customer) on the job of __________ (Owner) located at __________ (Job Description) and does hereby waive and release any right to a mechanic's lien, stop notice, or any right against a labor and material bond on the job, except for disputed claims for extra work in the amount of $_____.

Dated: _______________

    ______________________
    (Company Name)
  By __________________
    (Title)

Each unconditional waiver in this provision shall contain the following language, in at least as large a type as the largest type otherwise on the document:

"NOTICE: THIS DOCUMENT WAIVES RIGHTS UNCONDITIONALLY AND STATES THAT YOU HAVE BEEN PAID FOR GIVING UP THOSE RIGHTS. THIS DOCUMENT IS ENFORCEABLE AGAINST YOU IF YOU SIGN IT, EVEN IF YOU HAVE NOT BEEN PAID. IF YOU HAVE NOT BEEN PAID, USE A CONDITIONAL RELEASE FORM."

3281. Every person who suffers detriment from the unlawful act or omission of another, may recover from the person in fault a compensation therefor in money, which is called damages.

3282. Detriment is a loss or harm suffered in person or property.

3283. Damages may be awarded, in a judicial proceeding, for detriment resulting after the commencement thereof, or certain to result in the future.

3287. (a) Every person who is entitled to recover damages certain, or capable of being made certain by calculation, and the right to recover which is vested in him upon a particular day, is entitled also to recover interest thereon from that day, except during such time as the debtor is prevented by law, or by the act of the creditor from paying the debt. This section is applicable to recovery of damages and interest from any such debtor, including the state or any county, city, city and county, municipal corporation, public district, public agency, or any political subdivision of the state.

(b) Every person who is entitled under any judgment to receive damages based upon a cause of action in contract where the claim was unliquidated, may also recover interest thereon from a date prior to the entry of judgment as the court may, in its discretion, fix, but in no event earlier than the date the action was filed.

3294. (a) In an action for the breach of an obligation not arising from contract, where it is proven by clear and convincing evidence that the defendant has been guilty of oppression, fraud, or malice, the plaintiff, in addition to the actual damages, may recover damages for the sake of example and by way of punishing the defendant.

(b) An employer shall not be liable for damages pursuant to subdivision (a), based upon acts of an employee of the employer, unless the employer had advance knowledge of the unfitness of the employee and employed him or her with a conscious disregard of the rights or safety of others or authorized or ratified the wrongful conduct for which the damages are awarded or was personally guilty of oppression, fraud, or malice. With respect to a corporate employer, the advance knowledge and conscious disregard, authorization, ratification or act of oppression, fraud, or malice must be on the part of an officer, director, or managing agent of the corporation.

(c) As used in this section, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) "Malice" means conduct which is intended by the defendant to cause injury to the plaintiff or despicable conduct which is carried on by the defendant with a willful and conscious disregard of the rights or safety of others.

(2) "Oppression" means despicable conduct that subjects a person to cruel and unjust hardship in conscious disregard of that person's rights.

(3) "Fraud" means an intentional misrepresentation, deceit, or concealment of a material fact known to the defendant with the intention on the part of the defendant of thereby depriving a person of property or legal rights or otherwise causing injury.

(d) Damages may be recovered pursuant to this section in an action pursuant to Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 377.10) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure based upon a death which resulted from a homicide for which the defendant has been convicted of a felony, whether or not the decedent died instantly or survived the fatal injury for some period of time. The procedures for joinder and consolidation contained in Section 377.62 of the Code of Civil Procedure shall apply to prevent multiple recoveries of punitive or exemplary damages based upon the same wrongful act.

(e) The amendments to this section made by Chapter 1498 of the Statutes of 1987 apply to all actions in which the initial trial has not commenced prior to January 1, 1988.

3300. For the breach of an obligation arising from contract, the measure of damages, except where otherwise expressly provided by this Code, is the amount which will compensate the party aggrieved for all the detriment proximately caused thereby, or which, in the ordinary course of things, would be likely to result therefrom.

3301. No damages can be recovered for a breach of contract which are not clearly ascertainable in both their nature and origin.

3333. For the breach of an obligation not arising from contract, the measure of damages, except where otherwise expressly provided by this Code, is the amount which will compensate for all the detriment proximately caused thereby, whether it could have been anticipated or not.

3358. Except as expressly provided by statute, no person can recover a greater amount in damages for the breach of an obligation, than he could have gained by the full performance thereof on both sides.

3359. Damages must, in all cases, be reasonable, and where an obligation of any kind appears to create a right to unconscionable and grossly oppressive damages, contrary to substantial justice, no more than reasonable damages can be recovered.

3360. When a breach of duty has caused no appreciable detriment to the party affected, he may yet recover nominal damages.

3384. Except as otherwise provided in this Article, the specific performance of an obligation may be compelled.

3386. Notwithstanding that the agreed counterperformance is not or would not have been specifically enforceable, specific performance may be compelled if:

(a) Specific performance would otherwise be an appropriate remedy; and

(b) The agreed counterperformance has been substantially performed or its concurrent or future performance is assured or, if the court deems necessary, can be secured to the satisfaction of the court.

3399. When, through fraud or a mutual mistake of the parties, or a mistake of one party, which the other at the time knew or suspected, a written contract does not truly express the intention of the parties, it may be revised on the application of a party aggrieved, so as to express that intention, so far as it can be done without prejudice to rights acquired by third persons, in good faith and for value.